Brazil: Novas regras de contratação da Petrobras

NOVAS REGRAS DE CONTRATAÇÃO DA PETROBRAS

Em 15 de janeiro de 2018, a Petrobras publicou no Diário Oficial da União a versão completa do novo "Regulamento de Licitações e Contratos da Petrobras (RLCP)" conforme aprovado pelo seu Conselho de Administração. As novas regras estão em linha e complementam as disposições da Lei nº 13.303/2016 (a "Lei das Estatais") e, com sua plena implementação, substituirão o Decreto nº 2.745/1998, que regulou o processo de contratação da Petrobras desde a promulgação da Lei do Petróleo (Lei 9.478/1997).

A Lei das Estatais introduziu mudanças significativas nas regras de contratação aplicáveis às empresas públicas e sociedades de economia mista, principalmente como resposta à percepção geral de que tais empresas não possuíam regras específicas, modernas e rigorosas para blindá-las da influência política e riscos de corrupção. Trata-se de legislação há muito aguardada, que precisava ser implementada desde a promulgação da emenda constitucional nº 19/1998, que reconheceu e introduziu a necessidade de um conjunto específico de regras para as empresas estatais que exploram diretamente atividades econômicas e concorrem com entidades privadas.

As empresas estatais devem se adequar aos termos da nova lei até 30 de junho de 2018, o que inclui a necessidade de implementarem processos de contratação direta e licitação em conformidade com seus dispositivos. O Decreto nº 2.745/1998 foi expressamente revogado pela Lei das Estatais, o que significa que a Petrobras não contará mais com um conjunto específico de regras aplicáveis às suas práticas de contratação.

Algumas mudanças importantes para a Petrobras já foram antecipadas, como o final do processo de

licitação por "convite" (em que apenas os fornecedores convidados apresentam propostas) e inscrição no registro de fornecedor da Petrobras como condição para participar de processos de licitação.

O RLCP começa com uma forte mensagem sobre compliance. Os artigos 3 e 4 estabelecem o tom sobre o compromisso da Petrobras com a integridade e transparência e com a prevalência do Programa Petrobras de Prevenção à Corrupção. Por exemplo, agora o regulamento estabelece que a Petrobras não celebrará contratos com empresas cujos riscos de integridade forem "considerados altos". Nenhuma disposição adicional sobre o cumprimento de normas de prevenção à corrupção foi estabelecida no RLCP, uma vez que são tratadas em várias outras políticas e procedimentos divulgados pela Petrobras desdqeue o escândalo de corrupção da Lava-Jato veio à tona.

As disposições do RLCP são construídas de forma sequencial e sistemática levando em conta a forma como usualment se desdobram os processos de contratação, começando com as etapas preparatórias quneciluem a pré-qualificação do fornecedor, o Registro de Fornecedores da Petrobras, os catálogos de bens e serviços e as inovadoras "manifestações interesse privado" (em que terceiros podem oferecer soluções para desafios específicos da Petrobras). Em sueigda, avança para a licitação, habilitação, recursos, adjudicação e gestão de contratos (incluindo sanções e penalidades).

Gostaríamos de destacar alguns pontos deste novo conjunto de regras de forma não exaustiva que, na nossa opinião, podem ser de interesse para os contratantes:

  • O comprometimento geral e não especificado o de não contratar com "Partes Interessadas de alto risco" da perspectia de integridade;
  • Dado que, de acordo com a Lei das Estatais, a Petrobras já não poderá exigir a inscrição em secuadastro de fornecedores como pré-condição da licitação, ela está criando e incentivando processos e padrões de p-rqéualificação que tendem a tornar a habilitação mais eficiente para aqueles que já estejam cadastrados como seus fornecedores;
  • Os processos de licitação da Petrobras vão seguir 4 modalidades diferentes: pregão, licitações abertas, fechadas e mistas. A primeira é aplicável aos "bens e serviços comuns". As licitações abertas, fechadas e mistas diferem umas da outras em relação ao nível de divulgação das propostas apresentadas em cada modalidade. Todas têm em comum o fato de estarem abertas a qualquer pessoa que atenda aos critérios dos respectivos editais de licitação (que devem ser públicos, disponíveis on-line e ter um resumo publicado no Diároi  Oficial) e estabelecem processos competitivos similares (em essência) para selecionar a melhor oferta;
  • Adoção dos critérios de seleção ampliados estabelecidos pela Lei das Estatais, da seguinte forma: menor preço; maior desconto; melhor combinação de técnica e preço; melhor técnica; melhor conteúdo artístico; maior oferta de preço (de compra); maior retorno econômico; e melhor destinação para bens alienados;
  • Os recursos são, em princípio, aplicáveis apenas após a fase de habilitação e devem ser direcionoasdno prazo de 5 dias úteis para a "Autoridade Superior" por meio da Comissão de Licitações, que apreciará à sua admissibilidade (formal) e terá um prazo de 10 dias úteis para reconsiderar sua decisão. Caso seja admitido o recurso, mas a Comissão de Licitação não reconsidere sua decisão, o recurso será dirigido à Autoridade Superior, que terá um novo prazo de 10 dia úteis para decidir sobre o recurso;
  • Sobre as disposições relevantes em relação aos contratos, é interessante notar (além da submissão a um riemge de direito privado e da limitação de alterações à minuta do contrato apresentado junto com o edital da licitação) a existência de uma cláusula obrigatória que aloca riscos entre as partes no contrato (matriz de risco).
  • A regra das alterações nos contratos segue os mesmos padrões estabelecidos na Lei das Estatais, mas prevê expressamente que os aumentos nos valores do contrato estão sujeitos à existência oàuprevisão de recursos orçamentários.

O RLCP já está em vigor, mas produzirá efeitos gradualmenetem cada unidade operacional da Petrobras, de acordo com um cronograma ainda não divulgado (mas, em qualquer caso, a sua aplicação integral deve ocorrer antes do prazo de 30 de junho de 2018). As licitações em andamento e as negociações de contratos, bemcomo os contratos assinados antes   da promulgação do RLCP ainda devem ser regidos pelas regras anteriores da Petrobras, isto é, o Decreto nº 2.745/ 1998 as normas e políticas da Petrobras então vigentes.

Permanecemos à disposição para maiores esclarecimentos sobre o tema acima.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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