Brazil: Impacto no Brasil de decisão na Europa sobre Uber é limitado

Last Updated: 4 January 2018
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

A decisão do Tribunal de Justiça da União Europeia de que o Uber deve ser regulamentado como serviço de transporte reforça tendência mundial de criar regras mais claras para aplicativos de mobilidade, observada inclusive no Brasil. Segundo especialistas, no entanto, o posicionamento do bloco não deve afetar significativamente o andamento do debate por aqui, onde um projeto de lei em análise do Congresso deve definir o destino do setor.

A sentença do órgão europeu foi uma resposta a um questionamento proposto pela associação de taxistas de Barcelona, após a companhia americana sustentar que não é uma empresa de transporte, mas sim de serviços de tecnologia. Essa definição faz toda a diferença porque, pelas leis europeias, o setor privado é proibido de oferecer serviços de transporte sem autorização.

A decisão europeia é definitiva e não cabe recurso. Em nota enviada à imprensa internacional, o Uber afirmou que a decisão não muda as coisas na maioria dos países europeus, onde a empresa já opera sob leis de transporte. "Contudo, milhões de europeus ainda são impedidos de usar aplicativos como os nossos", pontuou a empresa. No Brasil, a companhia é regulamentada em 30 cidades, inclusive Brasília e São Paulo. No Rio, opera sob liminar, após ser proibida de operar pela prefeitura no ano passado.

A definição sobre a natureza do serviço prestado pelo Uber — e outros aplicativos de transporte — não é o ponto principal do debate brasileiro. As propostas de regulamentação são mais focadas nas regras que os motoristas devem seguir. As empresas são afetadas indiretamente, já que o aumento de exigências aos motoristas tende a afetar a capacidade de oferecer o serviço aos passageiros.

A principal proposta em debate é o projeto de lei 28/2017, de autoria do deputado Carlos Zarattini (PT-SP). O texto foi aprovado na Câmara dos Deputados em abril, e no Senado em outubro. Como foi alterado, voltou para ser analisado na Câmara. As alterações flexibilizaram regras previstas no texto original, como a exigência de que carros de aplicativo tenham placas vermelhas, como os táxis. Os deputados podem rejeitar ou aceitar as mudanças propostas pelos senadores, mas não acrescentar regras novas. Da Câmara, o texto segue para sanção presidencial.

— A regulamentação é uma tendência mundial. Mas acho que aqui no Brasil a direção que a gente está indo não é exatamente igual (à da Europa). O projeto aprovado no Senado não tem como foco a definição da atividade das plataformas. Aqui, contrariamente o foco acabou sendo a definição de transporte individual de passageiros. O foco é maior na atividade do motorista do que nas empresas — destaca Rosângela Delgado, sócia do escritório Veirano Advogados.

JUDICIÁRIO TEM VISÃO FAVORÁVEL, DIZ ESPECIALISTA

A proposta prevê que os aplicativos são serviços de transportes. Por aqui, no entanto, as implicações dessa definição são menores do que na Europa, avalia o consultor legislativo do Senado Rodrigo Novaes. Isso porque a lei de mobilidade urbana, de 2012, já reconhece serviços privados de transporte individual — antes, essa era uma prerrogativa de táxis, uma concessão pública.

Para Novaes, a versão que saiu do Senado é um caminho intermediário, sem vencedores claros.

— É um projeto que não atende muito a ninguém. Não faz nada de muito bom para as empresas de aplicativo, nem para os taxistas. Não consigo enxergar quem estaria interessado em fazer essa lei caminhar. Não vejo a quem interessa regulamentar para liberar o serviço. Os aplicativos só vão pressionar para regulamentação para liberar quando começarem a ter problemas no judiciário. Mas hoje o judiciário tem dado posicionamento favorável, baseado do princípio da livre iniciativa. Eles têm conseguido todas as liminares — destaca Novaes, que é a favor da desregulamentação do mercado de táxis.

Já na avaliação do professor do Centro de Tecnologia e Sociedade da FGV Pablo Cerdeira, é interesse das empresas em trabalhar por uma regulamentação, para diminuir a insegurança jurídica. Ele defende uma nova abordagem, em que o táxi não seja usado como referência.

— Quando se olha como aplicativo de transporte, está se reduzindo no médio e longo prazo. É mais um aplicativo de mobilidade. A questão da mobilidade afeta muito mais do que só o transporte. Afeta investimento, estímulo ao comércio, decisão de obras. Quando se tem uma visão mais geral, e isso vai ficar ainda mais sério com carro autônomo, o maior benefício que é para o bem coletivo — afirma o especialista.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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