Brazil: Análise de Impacto Regulatório

Last Updated: 2 November 2017
Article by Felipe De Paula

No último dia 15 de setembro, a Subchefia de Análise e Acompanhamento de Políticas Governamentais da Casa Civil da Presidência da República (SAG) lançou a Consulta Pública nº 01/2017, que fica aberta até o dia 1° de novembro. Estão em avaliação duas propostas complementares – Diretrizes Gerais e Guia Orientativo de Elaboração – relativas à chamada Análise de Impacto Regulatório (AIR), definida como "o processo sistemático de análise baseado em evidências que busca avaliar, a partir da definição de um problema regulatório, os possíveis impactos das alternativas de ação disponíveis para o alcance dos objetivos pretendidos, tendo como finalidade orientar e subsidiar a tomada de decisão". Derivam de trabalho conjunto entre SAG, agências reguladoras federais, Ministério da Fazenda, Ministério do Planejamento e Inmetro.

Tanto a iniciativa quanto a transparência do processo são louváveis. Concretamente, as propostas parecem consistentes, embora o texto não esteja a salvo de questionamentos. Para chegar aos documentos em consulta, premissas – nem sempre explícitas – foram estabelecidas. Neste artigo, proponho discutir algumas delas, relacionadas aos objetivos, papéis e funções da ferramenta. É essencial entender por que e para que existem, sob pena de debate raso. Em textos subsequentes, outros pressupostos ocultos, relativos ao como fazer, serão abordados.

O primeiro pressuposto-chave reside na definição dos objetivos de uma AIR. Aqui, é necessário evitar uma confusão recorrente. Embora o debate usualmente se restrinja, em um primeiro plano, aos resultados imediatos das análises, há um segundo plano, de fundo, referente ao destino que se dará ao estudo propriamente dito.

Sob o primeiro aspecto, as diretrizes em consulta apontam propósitos tão importantes quanto tradicionais. Propiciar maior eficiência, coerência e qualidade, robustez técnica e previsibilidade a decisões regulatórias relevantes. Há lastro em um ideal racionalista de qualificação da construção da intervenção pública.

Já sob o segundo, encontra-se uma premissa de peso. De acordo com a consulta, a AIR serve para orientar e subsidiar o processo de tomada de decisão, e as análises não vinculam o processo decisório. O decisor não está obrigado pelos resultados da AIR, exigindo-se apenas, em caso de não adoção das opções apresentadas, que dirigentes justifiquem explicitamente sua decisão.

Ora, a proposta define um desenho que, embora possível, não é único nem necessário. Existem diferentes modelos para a destinação de uma AIR, que transitam entre uma maior ou menor deferência ao decisor político e, a contrario sensu, ao corpo técnico.[1] Alternativas partem (i) da ideia de supressão da decisão política pela decisão técnica (speaking truth to the power), em que o estudo, ao definir uma opção, vincula o decisor final, passando por modelos (ii) em que a AIR meramente almeja gerar informações (reason-giving); há modelos (iii) que salientam o espaço de debate criado pela ferramenta (providing a forum for stakeholder input), ou (iv) a estruturação do discurso decisório (structuring the discourse); há, finalmente, desenhos (v) em que o papel das análises centra-se em apresentar alternativas e destacar trade-offs.

A escolha não é trivial e carrega, em si, uma visão da relação entre política e burocracia. Leituras mais tecnocráticas, desconfiadas do sistema político, dão mais peso aos resultados dos estudos, aproximando-se da missão de "trazer a verdade" ao decisor. Seus adeptos, por certo, frustraram-se com o texto em consulta.

Já leituras mais realistas, que assumem o elemento político como inescapável à decisão, veem a AIR de forma menos heroica: trata-se de boa ferramenta de constrangimento do poder público, que gera um forte ônus de justificativa a decisões que se afastem de evidências. Tecnicamente menos poderosa, a opção pode ter maiores chances de implementação, oferecendo à sociedade, ao menos, a possibilidade de controlar e expor eventuais ações desviantes.

Ocorre que isso ainda não é tudo. Avaliar opções de implementação de AIRs apenas pelos objetivos das análises, pelo modelo de destinação e, consequentemente, pelo grau de aproximação do ideal de qualificação técnica, deixa de fora aspectos fundamentais. Não se pode cobrar de uma AIR mais do que ela se propõe, mas é fato que uma política que aposta em AIRs pode cumprir diferentes funções, em busca de benefícios de diferentes ordens.

A implementação de AIRs pode estar relacionada, por exemplo, com (i) o incremento do controle técnico-político da burocracia, tanto por atores externos quanto pelo próprio governo central, (ii) com a organização e a procedimentalização da administração pública, (iii) com a proteção do processo decisório frente a grupos de pressão ou lobbies ilegítimos, e (iv) com seu uso como ferramenta de informação e assunção de maior legitimidade à atuação. Tais funções podem ser complementares mas, em certos casos, também podem colocar-se em conflito.

Assim, o ganho de se estabelecer AIRs pode não estar apenas no produto final da análise técnica. Organizar e controlar a burocracia, supervisionar delegações legislativas, publicizar processos e motivações, são elementos importantes que, por vezes, são desconsiderados. Podem justificar, plenamente, a implementação da ferramenta, a despeito de dificuldades metodológicas e operacionais de seu emprego. Porém, é preciso entender o que efetivamente se almeja, e em que medida há complementaridade ou conflito.

O texto em consulta aponta, inequivocamente, para algumas funções adicionais. Primeiro, define como um de seus objetivos "aumentar a transparência e a compreensão sobre o processo regulatório como um todo, permitindo aos agentes de mercado e à sociedade em geral conhecer os problemas regulatórios, as etapas de análise, as técnicas utilizadas, as alternativas de solução". Depois, colocando peso no curso do processo em si (e não apenas no resultado final), afirma caber aos decisores "orientar o curso de ação a ser adotado e racionalizar o processo decisório no âmbito da respectiva Agência", quiçá pressupondo ganhos de controle e de gestão. Há, pois, outras tarefas a cumprir.

Em suma, discutir aspectos técnicos da proposta não basta: importa entender as escolhas prévias que lhe dão lastro. Para além de objetivos explícitos, os documentos em consulta carregam modelos e funções adicionais, às vezes implícitos, que precisam ser compreendidos. Resta saber o quão claro isso está.

Footnotes



[1] Cf. MEUWESE, Anne. Impact Assessment in EU Lawmaking. Leiden: EM Meijers Instituut, 2008.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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