Brazil: Hoje é de dia de rock, bebê!

No começo de junho de 2017, o baixista Gene Simmons, da banda norte-americana Kiss, surpreendeu o mundo da música ao depositar um pedido de registro de marca para o famoso gesto do rock ("devil's horns") no Escritório de Marcas e Patentes dos Estados Unidos (USPTO, pedido no. 87482739). Segundo Simmons, ele teria sido o primeiro astro do rock a fazer o gesto, em novembro de 1974. Se concedido, o registro garantiria ao músico exclusividade para usar o gesto em performances musicais.

Após as polêmicas imediata e naturalmente geradas pelo pedido de registro, Gene Simmons abandonou-o cerca de dez dias após o depósito, não sem antes ter auferido incomensurável publicidade gratuita por sua inusitada iniciativa.

Marcas são sinais distintivos que se prestam a distinguir um produto ou serviço de seus pares no mercado. Meramente a partir dessa definição, já adviria um dos primeiros desafios ao pedido de registro de Gene Simmons: o gesto indicaria a origem de algum produto ou serviço, particularizando-o face aos demais? Ademais, outro ponto que o músico teria que superar para obter o registro seria a natural alegação de que se trata de gesto genérico e de uso já difundido pelo público no ramo de negócio em que se pretendia a proteção do sinal como marca. Não obstante, independentemente do mérito da pretensão do célebre linguarudo, o caso enseja discutir brevemente o tópico das chamadas "marcas não-tradicionais".

Tradicionalmente, os sinais distintivos empregados como marca são nominativos (vocábulos), figurativos (gravuras) ou mistos, isto é, uma combinação entre ambos (escritas estilizadas ou composições de nomes e figuras). No entanto, a profusão de bens e serviços característica da sociedade industrial propiciou nos idos recentes o surgimento de novas abordagens para a atração e a fidelização do consumidor nesse ambiente deveras competitivo, de onde advieram propostas inovadoras para assinalar produtos e serviços. Assim, deparamo-nos hodiernamente com marcas não-tradicionais, tais como marcas olfativas, sonoras, táteis, de posição, gestuais e de movimento, tridimensionais e holográficas.

No Brasil, a Lei da Propriedade Industrial (Lei no. 9.279 de 1996 – LPI) estabelece que são suscetíveis de registro como marca os sinais distintivos que forem "visualmente perceptíveis". Esse requisito preliminar já elimina prematuramente a possibilidade de registro de marcas olfativas, táteis e sonoras no Brasil. No entanto, permanece o debate em torno de marcas gestuais e de movimento, tais como o gesto do rock alegadamente de propriedade de Gene Simmons, na medida em que esses sinais são indubitavelmente perceptíveis ao sentido da visão.

Uma vez que a lei é silente a respeito e que os procedimentos administrativos do Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI) não contemplam uma categoria para marcas gestuais ou de movimento, representações gráficas do gesto em questão deverão ser depositadas perante a autarquia como marcas figurativas e, a depender da licitude e da distintividade da gravura, terão o seu registro concedido pelo INPI. Cumpre, no entanto, indagar qual seria o conteúdo do direito conferido pelo INPI ao titular do registro.

Com efeito, uma interpretação severa que se fiasse no fato de que o registro cuida de uma marca figurativa tradicional conduziria à conclusão insatisfatória de que o objeto da proteção restringir-se-ia àquela imagem em si. Evidentemente, não terá sido essa a proteção buscada pelo titular, cuja intenção decerto seria auferir exclusividade sobre a realização do gesto ou movimento e não meramente sobre a reprodução da imagem na qual ele foi expressado para fins de apresentação ao INPI e obtenção do registro.

Alguns exemplos envolvendo o registro do posicionamento e aposição distintiva de cores em objetos ajudam a ilustrar a situação. A conhecida companhia de maquinários agrícolas John Deere, por exemplo, logrou registrar no Brasil diversas marcas figurativas que expressam seu tradicional trade dress nas cores verde e amarela, presentes há décadas nos seus tratores (v. registros n°. 829.134.492; 829.134.476, v. g.). Evidentemente, a John Deere não objetiva alcançar com esses registros a proteção dos desenhos de tratores coloridos. Ao revés, a intenção é nitidamente assegurar a exclusividade do uso das cores verde e amarela na decoração de máquinas agrícolas. Inclusive, no registro de n°. 811.232.115, o INPI pareceu corroborar essa interpretação, porquanto apostilou o registro com os seguintes dizeres: "sem direito ao uso exclusivo da figura de 'máquina para colheita e trilhadeiral' ".

Outro exemplo curioso é o registro no. 903.462.141 da cervejaria Anheuser-Busch, Inc., no qual consta a marca figurativa de um puxador vermelho de lata de alumínio. Mais uma vez, cumpre indagar: qual seria o objeto protegido pelo registro? A ilustração da base superior de uma lata cilíndrica de cerveja ou o conjunto original e distintivo formado por um abridor na cor vermelha, com formato peculiar arredondado e vazado no contorno de uma coroa (reconhecida por fazer parte da marca mista da cerveja Budweiser)?

De volta ao campo das marcas gestuais e de movimento, um exemplo peculiar é o registro no. 826006248 da Nokia, no qual se encontra a marca figurativa de quatro quadros que representam os frames do tradicional vídeo de inicialização do sistema de celulares da companhia finlandesa. Ora, resta claro que a Nokia objetivava proteger o seu filmete no qual duas mãos se apertam e não registrar uma matriz de quatro figuras inertes emparelhadas.

Diante dessa lacuna na sistemática da Propriedade Industrial no Brasil, enquanto não houver uma categoria expressa para as marcas gestuais, de movimento ou de posição, o caminho ideal para resolver esse tipo de imprecisão seria a previsão de que o registro de marca contemplasse um esclarecimento acerca do teor da proteção efetivamente reivindicada pelo titular e concedida pela autarquia, consignando publicamente esse alcance para a sociedade. Destarte, além de reivindicar uma determinada classe de produtos e serviços para o seu sinal distintivo, o titular dessas espécies de marca não-tradicional pleitearia ainda expressamente o escopo de proteção pretendido, cabendo ao INPI examinar a viabilidade da pretensão de acordo com os requisitos legais ordinários. Na ausência, entretanto, dessa realidade, caberá ao Poder Judiciário definir a extensão dos direitos conferidos por esses registros na eventualidade de uma disputa judicial

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