Brazil: O Bem-vindo reconhecimento da vedação à importação paralela

Ao final de 2016, o juiz de direito da 43ª Vara Cível do Foro Central de São Paulo concedeu tutela antecipada a favor de uma renomada empresa que atua com computadores, videogames e produtos eletrônicos em geral, determinando busca e apreensão de videogames que vinham sendo comercializados por quatro lojas em São Paulo e trazidos para o Brasil via importação paralela.

Vale destacar que os modelos de videogames apreendidos pelos auxiliares do referido juízo sequer são importados ou comercializados pela empresa no Brasil. Na realidade, no país, a companhia ainda fabrica e comercializa o modelo anterior desse produto. Com efeito, a empresa, titular dessa tecnologia, ainda vem analisando e testando o novo modelo para lançamento no Brasil.

Foi com extrema surpresa, portanto, que a companhia recebeu a notícia de que quatro lojas localizadas na região da Santa Efigênia – local famoso em São Paulo pela venda de produtos eletrônicos de procedência duvidosa e preços baixos – estavam comercializando o novo modelo de seus produtos pelo mesmo valor/preço do modelo anterior, porém ainda o último lançado no Brasil.

É importante enfatizar que, caso esse novo modelo fosse trazido ao Brasil via importação regular ou transparente, com o pagamento de todas as taxas e encargos condizentes, não conseguiria chegar às gôndolas, prateleiras ou ambientes virtuais de lojas nacionais por um valor menor do que R$ 2.500.  As quatro lojas vinham comercializando esse produto por R$ 1.600, o que, conforme exposto, corresponde ao mesmo preço do modelo anterior do aparelho, mas ainda o último lançado no país.

Neste sentido, foi bem demonstrado na ação que a importação irregular e a comercialização do novo modelo do videogame da companhia por essas quatro lojas pelo mesmo preço do modelo anterior (ainda atual no Brasil), inevitavelmente, geravam uma concorrência desleal para com essa última.

Muito embora pareça um tanto quanto estranho, pode-se afirmar, sem hesitar, que a empresa vinha sofrendo concorrência desleal com as vendas, por terceiros, de seu próprio produto, porém ainda não oficialmente lançado no Brasil.

É evidente que, apesar da ausência das garantias próprias, comumente oferecidas pela empresa a todos os seus produtos, e das próprias condições duvidosas dos produtos importados e comercializados sem autorização, o consumidor, no momento da escolha e compra do produto, fatalmente preferirá a nova versão ou modelo do produto em detrimento da anterior, haja vista o valor/preço igual.

Desta forma, vale salientar que a decisão da 43ª Vara Cível do Foro Central de São Paulo, em coibir a importação de produtos nessas condições, confirma tendência cada vez mais constantes dos juízos e tribunais nacionais, sobretudo de São Paulo.

Recobra-se que, há pouco tempo, esse tema, que envolve a legalidade das importações paralelas, costumava dividir ainda mais doutrina e jurisprudência. Felizmente, nos dias atuais, já se pode encontrar diversos precedentes, especialmente do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de São Paulo, confirmando a violação das importações paralelas com amparo no artigo 132, inciso III, da LPI – Lei da Propriedade Industrial No 9.279/96 e, assim, determinando a abstenção dos produtos trazidos para o Brasil nessas condições.

O Superior Tribunal de Justiça também possui entendimento considerando ilegal as importações paralelas e desautorizadas de produtos, igualmente com base no artigo 132, inciso III, da LPI:

"Tendo o Tribunal de origem apurado não haver autorização, pela titular da marca, para a importação dos produtos, o artigo 132, inciso III, da Lei 9279/96, não socorre a recorrente (STJ, REsp 1207952/AM, Rel. Min. Luiz Felipe Salomão, Dj. 01.02.2012).

É importante contrapor que, mesmo nos casos do Tribunal de Justiça de São Paulo que admitem a importação paralela de produtos com base no princípio do "livre comércio", deixam claro, em suas fundamentações, que os titulares desses produtos já comercializam ou fazem uso dos mesmos no país.

Recobra-se que, neste caso específico levado ao Judiciário, o modelo trazido irregularmente pelas lojas demandadas sequer foi lançado ou é utilizado no Brasil. Tais produtos ainda se encontram em fase de testes.

Insiste-se que a importação paralela desse novo modelo e marca do videogame com preços competitivos com o modelo anterior, porém ainda o último lançado no Brasil, leva a uma concorrência desleal e parasitária com base no artigo 195, inciso III, da já referida LPI. Não há como negar que a prática adotada por essas quatros lojas demandadas constitui fraude ou meio fraudulento para desviar clientes, conforme prescreve a referida norma.

Andou bem, portanto, o juiz da 43ª vara cível de São Paulo em determinar a abstenção dos produtos importados de forma não autorizada por terceiros e a busca e apreensão desses, o que já ocorreu em duas oportunidades.       

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