Brazil: El año de 2016 en Propiedad Intelectual en Brasil: prioridad para concesión de marcas y patentes

Last Updated: 20 February 2017
Article by Breno De Souza, Rhuan Carlos Quintanilha and Natasha Barão

Los últimos 12 meses tuvieron grandes noticias en el sector de marcas y patentes en Brasil. El INPI (Instituto Nacional de la Propiedad Industrial) divulgó diversas resoluciones y directrices que dan celeridad al trámite para la obtención de protección de marcas y de invenciones de los investigadores y empresas brasileñas, buscando principalmente la reducción del tiempo de examen de los pedidos de marcas y patentes de la entidad. La consultoría Clarke, Modet & Co., líder en Europa y América Latina en el sector, cita algunos de los grandes cambios que el país vio en este asunto en el 2016.

Entre los cambios, sin duda, se destaca la reestructuración por la cual pasa el INPI, con la intención de disminuir su backlog (acumulación de pedidos pendientes de análisis). Después de un largo período sin admitir nuevos investigadores y tecnólogos, a lo largo del año 2016, fueron incorporados 140 nuevos funcionarios, siendo 100 investigadores   y 40 tecnólogos. El concurso público que seleccionó a estos profesionales llegará a su plazo de validez en pocos meses. Además de la contratación, el instituto estableció la migración entre sectores: el registro de programas de computadora y topografía de circuitos integrados se ubicaron en la Dirección de Patentes, mientras el registro de Diseño Industrial fue incorporado por la Dirección de Marcas.

Además se debe destacar los acuerdos firmados a lo largo del año entre el INPI y el EPO (Oficina Europea de Patentes), JPO (Oficina Japonesa de Patentes), UKIPO (Oficina de Propiedad Intelectual del Reino Unido) y el INPI francés, que en líneas generales buscan la colaboración entre el INPI y las demás oficinas en diversos aspectos, principalmente en relación al examen prioritario de pedidos de patentes.

Nuevos actos para incentivar la innovación 

Otra iniciativa para disminuir el tiempo de concesión de patentes se transformó de provisoria para definitiva. Se trata del Programa Piloto de Patentes Verdes, que fue creado en el 2012 para examinar un contingente anual de 500 pedidos de inventos benéficos al medio ambiente. Después de prorrogado por algunos años, en el 2015, el instrumento no fue renovado. En agosto, durante el XXXVI Congreso Brasileño de Propiedad Intelectual, no obstante, el INPI divulgó que la resolución se tornaría definitiva, sin número limitado de pedidos, ni plazo de validez.  Entonces, en la RPI 2396, del 06 de diciembre de 2016, el INPI publicó la resolución nº 175/2016, que establece el examen prioritario de pedidos de "Patentes Verdes".

En julio, el INPI publicó la Resolución no­ 169/2016, que revisó las Directrices de Examen de Patentes publicadas en el 2013, reforzando el posicionamiento del INPI conforme los entendimientos anteriores. La nueva norma no trajo cambios significativos en las Directrices de Exámenes de Patentes, pero mostró la intención del INPI de hacer públicos los requisitos considerados en el examen de patentes.

También este año, un asunto que estuvo en Consulta Pública tuvo oficialización. En el mes de diciembre, se publicó la Resolución Nº 158, de las Directrices de Examen de Pedido de Patentes de Invenciones Implementadas por Programas de Computadora. El documento ayuda a la evaluación técnica y oficializa el entendimiento sobre lo que es considerado innovación en esta área específica.

Interfaz con otros órganos

En el 2016, el INPI publicó el MEMO/INPI/DIRPA/Nº 055/2016 que define un nuevo modo de actuación del INPI frente a la interferencia de la ANVISA durante el procesamiento de pedidos de patente.

El referido MEMO define que, en el caso de pedidos de patentes que ya fueron examinados por el INPI y el mismo decidió la concesión de la patente, el dictamen de ANVISA fundamentado en consideraciones de salud pública vincula el acto administrativo del INPI, o sea, si la ANVISA no permite el pedido debido a criterios de salud pública, el INPI debe archivar el mismo.

No obstante, en caso que el dictamen técnico de ANVISA sea fundamentado en criterios de patentabilidad, este no vincula el acto administrativo del INPI, o sea, el INPI recibirá los dictámenes emitidos y los posibles argumentos y enmiendas presentados como subsidios al examen técnico, los cuales pueden ser o no considerados en el momento en que el pedido regrese al INPI.

Se puede señalar que tal MEMO se basa en las conclusiones llegadas por el dictamen nº 0006-2015-AGU/PGFPFE/INPI/COOPI-LBC-1.0.

Normas específicas para marcas

Para el área de marcas, la novedad del 2016 que, probablemente, generó más discusión entre los actuantes en el área  fue la Resolución nº 166/2016, publicada el 31 de mayo de 2016, al instituir un nuevo estándar de reserva, más conocido como apostilla, en los certificados de registros.  Con la uniformización de la apostilla, el INPI parece eximirse de evaluar sobre posibles prohibiciones al registro de una marca, o sea: las prohibiciones expresadas en los incisos  II, VI, VIII, XVIII y XXI del artículo 124 de la Ley n° 9.279/96. Resumidamente, la marca objeto de un registro concedido, tendrá su protección limitada por las siguientes prohibiciones: (a) letra, cifra y fecha, aisladamente, salvo cuando estén revestidos de suficiente forma distintiva; (b) señal de carácter genérico, necesario, común, vulgar o simplemente descriptivo, cuando tenga relación con el producto o servicio a distinguir, o aquel empleado comúnmente para designar una característica del producto o servicio, con respecto a la naturaleza, nacionalidad, peso, valor, calidad y época de producción o de prestación del servicio, salvo cuando estén revestidos de suficiente forma distintiva; (c) colores y sus denominaciones, salvo si son dispuestas o combinadas de modo peculiar y distintivo; (d) término técnico usado en la industria, en la ciencia y en el arte, que tenga relación con el producto o servicio a distinguir; (e) objeto que esté protegido por registro de diseño industrial de tercero. 

La estandarización de la apostilla es una de las medidas adoptadas por el INPI con el objetivo de intentar  simplificar el examen de un pedido de registro, permitiendo que los examinadores logren cumplir sus metas y, consecuentemente, minimizar el tiempo de espera para el análisis de un pedido de registro de marca. Según divulgación hecha por el INPI, este cambio para la apostilla no modifica los criterios de examen de registrabilidad de una marca y solo beneficiará al usuario con la reducción del backlog. 

Sin cuestionarse aquí la eficacia de las medidas adoptadas por el INPI,  el hecho es que varias acciones están siendo tomadas con el objetivo de agilizar los exámenes técnicos  de los procesos de patentes, diseños industriales y marcas.  La importancia de la reducción del backlog está directamente relacionada con una mejoría operacional del INPI que, consecuentemente, será un gran estímulo a la innovación en Brasil.  


Clarke, Modet & Co - BRAZIL

Rio de Janeiro
Av. Marechal Câmara, 160, 12º andar (Ed. Le Bourget), RJ 20020-080
Tel: +(55-21) 3223-9500
Email: brj@clarkemodet.com.br


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