Brazil: A Convenção da Apostila de Haia já está vigente em Brasil

Last Updated: 26 September 2016
Article by Patrícia Falcão

Em 6 de julho de 2015 (quase 54 anos depois), o Congresso Nacional Brasileiro aprovou a adesão do Brasil à Convenção através do Decreto Legislativo nº 148, que entrou em vigor na República Federativa do Brasil em 14 de agosto de 2016.

A Convenção da Apostila da Haia tem o objetivo de agilizar e simplificar a legalização de documentos entre os países signatários, permitindo o reconhecimento mútuo de documentos brasileiros no exterior e de documentos estrangeiros no Brasil através de um único selo denominado Apostila.

Em termos práticos, a Apostila consiste em inserir no documento, um selo ou carimbo apostilado, que certifica a autenticidade do documento público expedido em um determinado país e requerido em outro. Assim, se reconhecem a eficácia jurídica dos documentos entre os países membros da Convenção, eliminando a necessidade de se legalizar o documento no Consulado Brasileiro dos países membros e por sua vez, permite que o Brasil usufrua dos mesmos trâmites, quando receber documentos oriundos do exterior, de um dos países membros.

Ou seja, a única formalidade que pode ser exigida para atestar a veracidade da assinatura, qualidade e autenticidade, será o selo ou carimbo dado pela autoridade competente do país donde o documento é originário.

Necessário observar que a formalidade da Apostila não pode ser exigida caso as leis, regulamentos ou costumes que vigorem no país onde se celebrou o ato, afaste, simplifique ou dispense o ato da legalização.

A adesão à Convenção tem como principais vantagens a circulação mais rápida de documentos públicos entre os países membros, a desburocratização do sistema de certificação de documentos públicos, bem como a redução dos custos, beneficiando, em última análise, o comércio internacional e a atuação das pessoas de outras jurisdições que tenham efeitos jurídicos no Brasil.

A Apostila permitirá que documentos públicos emitidos no Brasil, sejam mais facilmente reconhecidos juridicamente nos países membros da Convenção, contanto que eles sejam devidamente apostilados pela autoridade competente.

No Brasil, o Conselho Nacional de Justiça (CNJ) é o órgão responsável por coordenar e regulamentar a aplicação do tratado através das autoridades competentes autorizadas para o feito.

Com a implementação da "Apostila", o ato de certificação sobre um documento por parte da autoridade competente, é suficiente para provar seu caráter público, ou seja, a autoridade certifica que a assinatura ou carimbo que consta no documento, foi emitido por um funcionário público em exercício das suas funções, sem que as autoridades do país de recebimento do documento, possa exigir um outro teste de autenticidade em relação à mesma. No entanto, é necessário esclarecer que este processo é de igual valia à legalização, ou seja, o mesmo não certifica a validade do conteúdo do documento, mas sim a sua autenticidade.

A Convenção se aplica aos atos públicos lavrados e apresentados em um dos países membros. Sendo que são considerados como atos públicos:

  1. Documentos provenientes de uma autoridade ou de um funcionário dependente de qualquer jurisdição do país, compreendidos os provenientes do Ministério Público, de um escrivão de direito ou de um oficial de diligências;
  2. Documentos administrativos;
  3. Atos notariais;
  4. Declarações oficiais tais como menções de registo, vistos para data determinada e reconhecimento de assinatura, inseridos em atos de natureza privada.

E, a Convenção não se aplica a:

  1. Documentos elaborados pelos agentes diplomáticos ou consulares;
  2. Documentos administrativos relacionados diretamente com uma operação comercial ou aduaneira.

Para que seja expedida uma Apostila, é necessário que:

  1. Seja um documento emitido, ou autorizado em um país signatário;
  2. o documento venha a ser utilizado em um país membro da Convenção; e
  3. o documento tenha caráter público, em conformidade com o artigo primeiro da Convenção.

Qualquer pessoa que possua um documento público o qual deseja certificar a autenticidade, poderá requerer a certificação da Apostila junto à uma das autoridades competentes que pode ser encontrada através do sítio eletrônico abaixo:

(http://www.cnj.jus.br/poder-judiciario/relacoes-internacionais/convencao-da-apostila-da-haia/cartorios-autorizados)

A implementação de "Apostila" significa um grande avanço na legalização de documentos públicos emitidos no exterior, bem como para os emitidos no Brasil destinados ao exterior, o que, em termos gerais, tem mais pontos fortes do que fracos; de modo que favorece o intercâmbio comercial e multicultural entre os Estados membros, eliminando as barreiras que impedem o trânsito dos documentos.

Exemplo de apostilamento e de carimbo:


Clarke, Modet & Co - BRAZIL

Rio de Janeiro
Av. Marechal Câmara, 160, 12º andar (Ed. Le Bourget), RJ 20020-080
Tel: +(55-21) 3223-9500
Email: brj@clarkemodet.com.br


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