Brazil: Informativo Extraordinário 167

Last Updated: 18 November 2015
Article by Bichara Barata & Costa Advogados

Na data de ontem, após mais de 3 anos da edição da Lei Complementar nº 140/2011, foi publicado o Decreto Federal 8437/2015 que regulamenta as tipologias de empreendimentos e atividades sujeitas ao licenciamento ambiental federal – IBAMA, disposto no art. 7º, caput, inciso XIV, alínea "h", e parágrafo único, da referida LC.

Além daquelas já previstas na LC 140/2011 (art. 7º, caput, inciso XIV, alíneas "a" a "g"), serão licenciados pelo órgão ambiental federal as seguintes atividades/empreendimentos:

I- rodovias federais (implantação; pavimentação e ampliação de capacidade com extensão igual ou superior a duzentos quilômetros; regularização ambiental de rodovias pavimentadas, podendo ser contemplada a autorização para as atividades de manutenção, conservação, recuperação, restauração, ampliação de capacidade e melhoramento; e atividades de manutenção, conservação, recuperação, restauração e melhoramento em rodovias federais regularizadas), sendo que não se aplica nos casos de contornos e acessos rodoviários, anéis viários e travessias urbanas (conforme§ 1º); 

II - ferrovias federais (implantação;  ampliação de capacidade; e regularização ambiental de ferrovias federais), sendo que não se aplica nos casos de implantação e ampliação de pátios ferroviários, melhoramentos de ferrovias, implantação e ampliação de estruturas de apoio de ferrovias, ramais e contornos ferroviários (conforme§ 2º); 

III - hidrovias federais (implantação; e ampliação de capacidade cujo somatório dos trechos de intervenções seja igual ou superior a duzentos quilômetros de extensão); 

IV - portos organizados, exceto as instalações portuárias que movimentem carga em volume inferior a 450.000 TEU - Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (Unidades Equivalentes a Vinte Pés)/ano ou a 15.000.000 ton/ano; 

V - terminais de uso privado e instalações portuárias que movimentem carga em volume superior a 450.000 TEU/ano ou a 15.000.000 ton/ano; 

VI - exploração e produção de petróleo, gás natural e outros hidrocarbonetos fluidos nas seguintes hipóteses: a) exploração e avaliação de jazidas, compreendendo as atividades de aquisição sísmica, coleta de dados de fundo (piston core), perfuração de poços e teste de longa duração quando realizadas no ambiente marinho e em zona de transição terra-mar (offshore); b) produção, compreendendo as atividades de perfuração de poços, implantação de sistemas de produção e escoamento, quando realizada no ambiente marinho e em zona de transição terra-mar (offshore); e c) produção, quando realizada a partir de recurso não convencional de petróleo e gás natural, em ambiente marinho e em zona de transição terra-mar (offshore) ou terrestre (onshore), compreendendo as atividades de perfuração de poços, fraturamento hidráulico e implantação de sistemas de produção e escoamento; e 

VII - sistemas de geração e transmissão de energia elétrica, quais sejam: a) usinas hidrelétricas com capacidade instalada igual ou superior a trezentos megawatt;  b) usinas termelétricas com capacidade instalada igual ou superior a trezentos megawatt; e c) usinas eólicas, no caso de empreendimentos e atividades offshore e zona de transição terra-mar. 

Ainda, a competência para o licenciamento será da União quando caracterizadas situações que comprometam a continuidade e a segurança do suprimento eletroenergético, reconhecidas pelo Comitê de Monitoramento do Setor Elétrico - CMSE, ou a necessidade de sistemas de transmissão de energia elétrica associados a empreendimentos estratégicos, indicada pelo Conselho Nacional de Política Energética - CNPE. 

Os processos de licenciamento já iniciados terão sua tramitação mantida perante os órgãos originários até o término da vigência da licença de operação, cuja renovação caberá ao ente federativo competente, caso ainda não tenha sido protocolada.

Por fim, foi estabelecido que o licenciamento de trechos de rodovias e ferrovias federais que se iniciar em órgão ambiental estadual ou municipal será assumido pelo órgão ambiental federal na licença de operação pertinente, mediante comprovação do atendimento das condicionantes da licença ambiental concedida pelo ente federativo, sendo que a comprovação ocorrerá por meio de documento emitido pelo órgão licenciador estadual ou municipal.

Apesar de certa uniformização já trazida pela LC 140/2011, a competência para o licenciamento ainda era objeto de muitos questionamentos. Vale lembrar que antes da LC, a competência do IBAMA era definida com base na localização específica (como por exemplo, em terras indígenas) e no impacto ambiental, quando nacional ou regional.

Com o advento da LC e referido Decreto, há um avanço na clareza das atividades sujeitas ao licenciamento federal, o que poderá garantir maior segurança jurídica ao empreendedor, aos próprios órgãos ambientais e, até mesmo, por fim às diversas discussões judiciais atualmente existentes que tratam da competência para o licenciamento federal.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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