Brazil: 巴西国家石油公司减负:巴西盐下油气藏立法修订

Last Updated: 19 April 2016
Article by Daniel C. D'Agostini

2016年2月24日,巴西参议院通过法案减轻巴西国家石油公司(Petrobras,以下简称"巴西国油")两项法定负担,业内人士认为之前该两项负担的存在对于巴西国油和巴西的盐下油气藏的开发来说均是明显的障碍。

巴西参议院以40对26票取消了巴西国油必须是所有盐下油田的作业者并持有至少30%的参与权益的法定要求。尽管该法案面临巴西国会的强烈反对,行政部也有一些反对声音,但参议院的举动仍带来了希望,因为当前的巴西正因政治和经济危机而风雨飘摇,巴西国内要求巴西国油专注于其所迫切需要的短期盈利能力,同时要求允许私人投资引领巴西盐下油藏的开发的呼声强而有力。

2010年颁布的第12.351号法律通过强制规定巴西国油在任何盐下油气田开发中扮演重要的角色,从而实现了政府对巴西盐下油气田的控制,这些盐下油气田被广泛认为是国家石油和天然气储备的御宝。即使是在原油每桶70美元的黄金时期,业内人士也质疑巴西国油是否有能力为30%的盐下油板块的开发提供资金,并集中必要的资源以高效地进行那些资金极为密集、劳动极为密集和充满技术挑战的、距离巴西海岸线300英里的超深海钻井。

现在,原油价格的挣扎在历史低点,巴西国油的最高管理层和巴西的政治和企业精英陷入巴西国油贪腐丑闻,加上预算和收入紧缩,巴西国油显然不会有财力去进行必要的重大长期投资以有效引导盐下油田的发展。

基于这些原因,油气行业认为巴西参议院的法案是一项务实且必要的举动,其允许私人投资者在现有的产品分成合同机制下开发国家的盐下层石油资源,同时也给巴西国油以喘息的机会来恢复其财务状况并处理其因贪污丑闻带来的负面影响。

参议院的法案也未完全使巴西国油退出盐下油田的舞台。通过对原拟议法案的修订,巴西国油仍会有30天的优先购买权来选择运营并持有任何盐下油田的至少30%的参与权益。虽然优先购买权的目的是为了保护巴西国油的选择权,特别是如果该公司的财务状况改善的情况下,但是也存在一些担心,若巴西国油未对任何特定盐下油田行使优先购买权,市场可能将其视为该块油田质量不佳的负面信号。

巴西国会和总统Dilma Rousseff也不可能在没有强烈的政治反对声音的情况下通过参议院的法案。此项法案起初由社会民主党(反对执政党)参议员José Serra提出,而自2002年起,劳工党(执政党)一直强有力地捍卫巴西国油在盐下油气藏开发中的核心地位,并且事实上, 上述2010年的立法正是由劳工党起草颁发的。将参议院的法案变成法律并非易事,而且它可能需要劳工党的一些政客们重新审视他们对于巴西政府通过巴西国油成为巴西石油和天然气资源的首要开发者的偏好。不过,该法案标记着有望为巴西国油的发展和巴西的盐下油气潜能的开发减轻负担。

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