Australia: Discovery of asbestos in imported construction materials reignites liability concerns for Australian businesses

Last Updated: 2 February 2017
Article by Hayley Upton and Kelli Stallard (formerly with DibbsBarker)
Services: Insurance,
Industry Focus: Insurance, Property
Date: 31 January 2017
Author: Hayley Upton, Associate and Kelli Stallard, Partner

What you need to know

  • Asbestos contamination has historically been a significant concern for many Australian businesses, given the material's common use in the Australian construction industry until the early 90s.
  • The risk of asbestos exposure in Australia has come back into the spotlight following the material's discovery in several new construction projects throughout 2016 - since many building products are imported, unsuspecting users may be caught out by differences in international standards.
  • Australian businesses need to understand their obligations under Australia's 'no tolerance' policy on asbestos and implement strong risk management practices.

Over a decade ago, Australia introduced a 'no tolerance' policy on asbestos through a nation-wide ban on the manufacture, supply, storage, sale, use, reuse, installation and replacement of all types of asbestos and Asbestos Containing Material (ACM).

Recently, asbestos concerns have been reignited after the toxic material was discovered in building products supplied to construction projects in Australia.

These developments serve as a reminder of the importance for Australian businesses, particularly those involved in building and construction projects, to review their internal processes and know their obligations and liabilities.

Asbestos is back in the spotlight

In July 2016 news broke that asbestos had been discovered in building materials in two prominent construction projects - a children's hospital in Western Australia and government headquarters in Queensland. At the centre of the controversy was an Australian-based subsidiary of a Chinese multinational manufacturing firm that was supplying asbestos-laced materials to construction companies which were certified as 'asbestos free'. The subsidiary maintained that the contaminated product was supplied by a third party China-based manufacturing plant, which provided a fraudulent test certificate. The certificate stated that the products were 'asbestos free' when in reality they contained traces of chrysotile or white asbestos. In China, products can be labelled 'asbestos free' if they contain up to 5% asbestos.

The discoveries triggered an investigation into all construction projects supplied by the Chinese-owned subsidiary as well as independent testing of the company's shipping containers. One further shipment headed for Queensland was revealed to contain asbestos and stopped at the border, but no other cases appear to have been detected so far. The United Kingdom and Europe followed suit and commenced their own enquiries into projects supplied by local branches of the Chinese parent company.

Earlier last year, contaminated building products imported from China were discovered in the flooring of two electrical substations in South Australia, while numerous other construction projects around the country came under scrutiny for suspected use of asbestos contaminated products.

The issue has drawn attention to Australia's border control practices, which were the subject of the Asbestos Importation Review Report released by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP) in August 2016. The independent review carried out by KGH Border Services examined the effectiveness of the DIBP's internal process and procedures for managing the importation of asbestos into Australia. Whilst the review ultimately found that the management of border processes for asbestos was effective, several key technical and organisational challenges were flagged for improvement. Most relevantly, the use of different testing standards between countries was identified as a key concern. Australia's asbestos ban was also at the centre of discussions between representatives of Australian Border Force (DIBP's enforcement agency) and the General Administration of China Customs in November 2016.

In light of the increased media and regulatory interest in Australia's asbestos regulations, it is more important than ever for Australian businesses to know their obligations and manage the risk of asbestos exposure arising under their guard.

Asbestos regulations affecting Australian importers and businesses

Australia's no tolerance policy

Asbestos is a toxic and carcinogenic mineral fibre that can cause lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis. As public awareness of the health risks associated with the product increased, an Australia-wide ban was effected on 31 December 2003. The ban is reflected in the work health and safety laws in all States and Territories and supplemented by Regulation 4C of the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations 1956, which prohibits the importation and exportation of asbestos and products containing asbestos.1

Australia is one of a small group of countries with a zero tolerance policy on asbestos. Many other countries will permit low amounts of particular types of asbestos in products. For example, chrysotile asbestos (also known as white asbestos) is permitted in a number of countries, including China. This discrepancy between international standards means that goods manufactured overseas could be labelled 'asbestos free' and still contain asbestos, as we have seen through recent discoveries in Australia.

Australian rules for testing

When it comes to testing for asbestos, various mandatory requirements must be considered.

Goods can be tested in Australia or overseas before importation. In either scenario, a testing certification must be provided to the Australian Border Force.

If an importer wishes to have goods tested in Australia, they must obtain permission from the Minister for Employment to import a sample for analysis purposes. The sample must come from the shipment intended for importation and testing must be conducted by an Australian laboratory accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA).

If testing is to be carried out overseas, certification must come from an overseas laboratory that is (i) accredited by the NATA equivalent in that country and (ii) a signatory to a Mutual Recognition Arrangements with NATA. The onus is on the importer to ensure these two requirements are met.

One of the issues with using overseas laboratories, which was relevantly identified in the KGH Asbestos Importation Review, is that often the laboratories will not have the required accreditation. International differences in testing standards can lead to 'asbestos free' certifications when in reality there are traces or residual amounts of asbestos in the product.

The relevant Australian Standard for testing of asbestos is by no means clear or certain. Care needs to be taken when interpreting laboratory results, as there are three levels of available testing. It should also be noted that there are no NATA-accredited labs in Australia to undertake the most stringent testing level.

If asbestos is detected, the imported products are seized as a prohibited import and are liable to be forfeited for disposal. Overseas suppliers found to provide products containing asbestos or ACM to Australia will be stopped at the border and any goods previously imported will be identified and referred to the relevant State and Territory regulatory bodies for further enquiries.

What liabilities might Australian businesses face?

Border offences

Importers who fail to adhere to Australia's strict importation/exportation requirements regarding asbestos can be subject to penalties or prosecution. Border offences attract fines of up to 1000 penalty units (A$180,000) or three times the value of the goods, whichever is greater. For a body corporate the same border offence attracts a higher penalty of up to five times the amount applied to an individual (A$900,000).

An importer's liability may be mitigated if it can show that all reasonable measures have been taken to ensure products do not contain asbestos. In some cases it may be sufficient to show a testing certificate from an overseas laboratory that says 'asbestos free' even if the testing was not conducted in accordance with the Australian Standards.

Work Health and Safety consequences

Businesses must also be mindful of their potential exposure under State-based Work Health and Safety (WHS) laws. In every State and Territory there are stringent requirements for managing and controlling asbestos and ACM at the workplace. These requirements fall under the umbrella of an overarching obligation on persons conducting a business or undertaking to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that workers and other persons are not exposed to health and safety risks in the workplace.

In the context of a construction project, builders, contractors, suppliers and employers can all be subject to the duties (and enforcement measures) imposed by WHS laws. If a WHS duty is breached and a person (ie a worker or member of the public) contracts or is at risk of contracting an asbestos-related illness, penalties or prosecutions may ensue.

Workers' Compensation claims

Employers whose workers are exposed to asbestos or ACM are at risk of workers' compensation claims by employees.

If an insurance claim is accepted, employees may be entitled to payment of their medical expenses, or an amount of lump sum compensation depending on the circumstances.

Employees may also have the right to sue their employer for negligence through the common law process. The test is whether in the circumstances a reasonable employer would have taken precautions having regard to the:

  • probability that the injury would occur if care were not taken
  • likely seriousness of the injury and
  • burden of taking precautions to avoid the risk of illness.

Australian Consumer Law

Suppliers are subject to the requirements of the Australian Consumer Law (ACL) and can be penalised for supplying unsafe products to the Australian market.

Liability based on common law negligence may also attach to a supplier of a product if it is established that they did not take adequate precautionary measures to check the product for asbestos contamination and as a result, a person was exposed to asbestos and became ill.

Manufacturers are also liable to compensate individuals where:

  • the manufacturer supplies the goods in trade or commerce and
  • the goods have a safety defect and
  • the individual suffers injuries because of the safety defect.

It is important to note that the term 'manufacturer' is broadly defined in the ACL and can include an Australian importer.

Owners and occupiers of property

Given the prevalence of past use, asbestos and ACMs can be found in all types of property – commercial, industrial, retail and residential. Although the estimated construction date of a particular building can be a good indicator of whether asbestos and ACMs are likely to be present, the above recent cases show that new construction work still has the propensity to be compromised by asbestos contamination.

Landlords should:

  • enquire about their contractors' risk management practices regarding the building products they use, as well as their relevant certifications and competency to carry out the work required on the premises
  • take the cautious route if asbestos contamination is suspected, and seek specialist guidance about what investigations should be made and how. If asbestos is known to be present, but is not exposed in any way, landlords should take care to arrange for the preparation, and implementation, of a formal asbestos management plan
  • be aware that if asbestos is present or suspected, development applications will usually mandate removal by qualified and certified contractors and certification of safe disposal. A number of recent examples of blatant illegal dumping of asbestos material have been exposed on news and current affairs programs, and government authorities are alert to this issue and looking to impose stringent penalties on those who are caught doing the wrong thing
  • be very careful in giving any contractual warranties, for example in a lease agreement, that their buildings contain no asbestos, unless they have made absolutely sure that this is correct (noting the issues highlighted above, such as differing international standards).

Asbestos contamination can also be an issue for tenants, especially where they are carrying out building or fitout works in the premises. WHS and Workers Compensation issues will be relevant to business owners regardless of whether they are landlords or tenants. Tenants should also ensure they are adequately protected with business interruption insurance coverage if the discovery of asbestos prevents them from carrying on business while rectification works are performed on the premises.

What should Australian businesses do to mitigate their risk?

First, Australian businesses should familiarise themselves with Australia's no tolerance policy and identify their legal obligations.

Second, it is imperative to implement and maintain strong risk management practices to ensure the products being imported, supplied or used comply with Australia's asbestos 'no tolerance' policy and sufficient measures are taken to prevent exposure to asbestos-related illnesses. Measures may include:

  • enquiring with overseas suppliers about the use of asbestos at any point in the manufacturing process and the supply chain
  • investigating any concerns
  • where appropriate, including in supplier contracts a term that requires a nil asbestos content
  • arranging for sampling and testing before products enter into Australia
  • conducting regular risk assessments that identify which raw materials are used in the manufacture of a product and where those materials are sourced.

As long as there is a lack of consistency between international standards governing asbestos in products, there is a real risk that products imported for use in Australia might contain asbestos. The key for Australian businesses is to be aware of their obligations and liabilities, and to take appropriate steps to limit their exposure and mitigate their risk.

Footnotes

1 There is a very limited exception. Regulation 4C(a) of the Customs Regulations provides: "The importation into Australia of amphibole asbestos, or goods containing amphibole asbestos, is prohibited unless the importation is of raw materials that contain naturally occurring traces of amphibole asbestos" (emphasis added).

This article is intended to provide commentary and general information. It should not be relied upon as legal advice. Formal legal advice should be sought in particular transactions or on matters of interest arising from this article. Authors listed may not be admitted in all states and territories

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Hayley Upton
Kelli Stallard (formerly with DibbsBarker)
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions