Russian Federation: Russische Gegensanktionen: Jahresrückblick 2018 und Ausblick auf 2019

Last Updated: 28 January 2019
Article by Hannes Lubitzsch and Tatiana Dovgan
Most Popular Article in Russian Federation, January 2019


In 2018 hat die Russische Föderation zum ersten Mal umfangreiche Gegenmaßnahmen als Antwort auf die US/EU-Sanktionen ergriffen. Auslöser hierfür waren vor allem der Erlass des CAATSA1 am 2. August 2017 und die Ausweitung der US-Sanktionen am 6. April 2018. Die Gegenmaßahmen sind eine Mischung aus Wirtschaftssanktionen und Maßnahmen zur Verhinderung der Umsetzung der US/EU-Sanktionen in Russland. Weitere Gegenmaßnahmen – insbesondere die Einführung einer Haftung für Sanktionsbefolgung in Russland – sind für 2019 zu erwarten.

Wesentlichen Entwicklungen

  • Am 15. Mai 2018 hat die Staatsduma in erster Lesung den Entwurf eines Blockadegesetzes angenommen, das eine strafrechtliche Haftung für Sanktionsbefolgung in Form von Freiheitsentzug bis zu vier Jahren vorsieht. Während eine solche strafrechtliche Haftung für Sanktionsbefolgung inzwischen wohl vom Tisch ist, droht immer noch die Einführung einer ordnungsrechtlichen Haftung.
  • Mit dem am 4. Juni 2018 in Kraft getretenen neuen Rahmengesetz für Gegenmaßnahmen hat der russische Präsident nun eine weitere Handhabe, um umfangreiche wirtschaftliche Maßnahmen gegen die Vereinigten Staaten und EU-Mitgliedsstaaten zu ergreifen. Bislang wurden Maßnahmen nach diesem Gesetz aber nur gegen die Ukraine verhängt.
  • Im Laufe des Jahres 2018 hat die russische Regierung eine Reihe von Verordnungen erlassenen, mit denen die Offenlegung von Informationen im Hinblick auf sanktionierte Personen beschränkt wird. Informationen aus öffentlich zugänglichen Quellen können im Hinblick auf diese Personen nun unvollständig sein.
  • Am 6. Juli 2018 wurden die Einfuhrzölle auf bestimmte Waren aus den Vereinigten Staaten angehoben. Das Einfuhrverbot für Agrarprodukte, Rohstoffe und Lebensmittel aus den Vereinigten Staaten und EU-Mitgliedsstaaten wurde am 12. Juli 2018 bis Ende 2019 verlängert.
  • Am 1. November 2018 wurden die ersten wirtschaftlichen Maßnahmen nach dem neuen Rahmengesetz für Gegenmaßnahmen gegen die Ukraine verhängt. Das in Russland befindliche Vermögen von 567 natürlichen Personen und 75 Gesellschaften – fast alle ukrainisch – wurde eingefroren. Zudem wurde am 29. Dezember 2018 die Einfuhr einer Reihe ukrainischer Waren verboten.
  • Die Bemühungen in Russland tätiger internationaler Unternehmen, Verletzungen der US/EU-Sanktionen zu vermeiden, können zu Verstößen gegen russisches Kartellrecht führen. Bislang gibt es aber keine Anzeichen dafür, dass der Förderale Antimonopoldienst gegen solche Verstöße vorgehen wird.
  • Im Laufe von 2018 haben russische Gerichte ihre Rechtsprechung weiterentwickelt, die die Umsetzung der US/EU-Sanktionen in Russland erschwert. Vertragliche Sanktionsklauseln müssen im Einzelfall unter Berücksichtigung dieser Rechtsprechung und der drohenden Haftung für Sanktionsbefolgung gestaltet werden.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in der Anlage.


1. Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (Public Law 115-44).

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