European Union: Cross-Border Legacies In The EU - Securing A Level Playing Field

Last Updated: 23 April 2015
Article by Phineas Hirsch, Emma McCall and Christopher King
Most Read Contributor in UK, July 2019

The discriminatory tax treatment of legacies left to foreign charities under wills where estates are administered in certain EU countries has long been a contentious issue for many UK charities. Our charity legacy team continues to keep a close eye on developments in this area and on new opportunities for tax efficiency in cross-border philanthropy. We have acted in numerous cases to ensure that legacies are applied to the charitable purposes intended by testators, rather than being swallowed up by national tax authorities.

Over the last decade, the European Court of Justice ('ECJ') has developed a clear line of rulings which make clear that charities established in one Member State must be granted the same tax privileges as those in another Member State (provided that they would qualify but for the fact that they are established outside the relevant territory). We welcome this move towards the principle of equality of EU charitable tax treatment. Of course, our clients are more concerned with practical application than jurisprudence. Sadly, certain Member States appear slow to implement change in practice.

Although a general principle of 'non-discrimination' has been firmly established, in many cases it has yet to filter down to the national laws of EU Member States. Technically, existing laws of Member States must be interpreted in such a way as to comply with EU principles. They should therefore provide for the possibility of a comparability test to the effect that, where a foreign charity complies with the domestic charitable requirements of a Member State, it should benefit from the same tax treatment as domestic charities. However, in practice foreign charities are often unable to meet this test owing to differing, specific (sometimes arbitrary) charitable criteria set by each Member State. We expect this non-compliance to be addressed over time through court cases and infringement action initiated by the European Commission. Certain positive steps have recently been apparent in certain jurisdictions, although practical results at national legislative level can be agonisingly slow to follow.


In October 2014 the European Commission issued Germany with a request in the form of a 'Reasoned Opinion' to remove discriminatory tax treatment for legacies to EU-based charities. Currently, German charities are granted an exemption from inheritance tax, but similar charities established in other Member States may only qualify for the exemption if their State of residence grants an equivalent or reciprocal exemption to comparable German charities. Consequently, legacies to foreign charities are often taxed more heavily. Germany does not appear to have complied with the request to date and we therefore expect the Commission to refer Germany to the ECJ in due course (watch this space...).


As we reported in our February legacy E-alert, France has recently taken steps to comply with the 'non-discrimination' principle. However, we have been advised by French lawyers that although the new Finance Act opens up tax privileged status to certain foreign charities, notably those providing humanitarian aid to distressed populations, the majority may still be discriminated against, owing to a territoriality requirement not visible in the legislation but imposed in practice by the tax authorities by convention.

The change in French law will only apply to successions after 1 January 2015; unfortunately it will not therefore be of assistance for legacies vesting before that date.

Generally speaking, the relevant national tax authorities have discretion over whether a foreign charity is comparable to a domestic charity and whether it will therefore receive the same tax treatment. Accordingly, Withers continues to work closely with foreign lawyers to submit tax exemption applications to this effect, stressing compliance with EU law and lobbying for a consistency of approach.


Elsewhere outside the EU, there is of course no recourse to EU law on free movement of capital and non-discrimination. Swiss law, for example, does not provide for an automatic tax exemption for legacies bequeathed to foreign charities (or even charities established in different cantons). However, we recently obtained confirmation that, in the case of the Canton of Geneva, a full tax exemption may be given to a UK charity where the tax privileged status of the charity within the UK can be demonstrated by providing, for example, confirmation of registration with the Charities Commission, copies of the charity's statutes and annual accounts, a formal letter from a lawyer confirming the charity benefits from tax exemption in the UK, and, if possible, confirmation from HMRC.

It is worth bearing in mind that, while the battle for compliance with the 'non-discrimination' principle rumbles on at national legislative level, representations to national tax authorities may still be made persuasively.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions