Turkey: Recent Cases

Last Updated: 3 May 2017
Practice Guide by ELIG, Attorneys-at-Law

The Board approved the transaction regarding the acquisition of Vive B.V.’s acquisition of sole control by Toyota Industries Europe AB (06.04.2017, 17-12/143-63)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the transaction regarding the acquisition of Vive B.V.’s acquisition of sole control by Toyota Industries Europe AB, which was solely controlled by Toyota Industries Corporation.

 

The Board approved the transaction regarding the acquisition of Zet Farma Lojistik Hizmetleri San. ve Tic. A.Ş.’s shares by Kühne+Nagel Nakliyat Ltd. Şti. (06.04.2017, 17-12/148-67)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the transaction regarding the acquisition of Zet Farma Lojistik Hizmetleri San. ve Tic. A.Ş.’s shares by Kühne+Nagel Nakliyat Ltd. Şti. 

 

The Board approved the transaction regarding the acquisition of sole control over Grome İç ve Dış Ticaret Ltd. Şti., GROME Marketing (Cyprus) Ltd. and Bathroom Solutions Ltd.  by LIXIL Group Corporation, through Grohe AG (6.4.2017, 17-2/151-68)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the transaction regarding the acquisition of sole control over Grome İç ve Dış Ticaret Ltd. Şti., GROME Marketing (Cyprus) Ltd. and Bathroom Solutions Ltd.  by LIXIL Group Corporation, through Grohe.

 

The Board granted individual exemption to the Cooperation of Distributorship and Device Agreement signed between Turkcell Satış ve Dağıtım Hizmetleri A.Ş. and KVK Teknoloji Ürünleri ve Tic. A.Ş. & Genpa Telekomünikasyon ve İletişim Hizmetleri San. ve Tic. A.Ş. (06.04.2017,  17-12/145-64)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) granted individual exemption to the Cooperation of Distributorship and Device Agreement signed between Turkcell Satış ve Dağıtım Hizmetleri A.Ş. and KVK Teknoloji Ürünleri ve Tic. A.Ş. & Genpa Telekomünikasyon ve İletişim Hizmetleri San. ve Tic. A.Ş..

 

The Board granted individual exemption to the agreement signed between Daiichi Sankyo İlaç Ticaret Ltd. Şti. and Aksel Ecza Deposu A.Ş. (06.04.2017, 17-12/147-66)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) granted individual exemption to the agreement, which exclusively authorizes Aksel Ecza Deposu A.Ş. regarding the tender sales of the medicine titled Simdax, in Turkey.

 

The Board decided that the Tender Sales Agreement signed between Sanofi Sağlık Ürünleri Ltd. Şti. and Aksel Ecza Deposu Ticaret A.Ş. benefits from block exemption concerning certain types of medicine and granted individual exemption to the relevant agreement with respect to other types of medicine (23.3.2017, 17-11/130-59)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) decided that the Tender Sales Agreement signed between Sanofi Sağlık Ürünleri Ltd. Şti. and Aksel Ecza Deposu Ticaret A.Ş. benefits from block exemption concerning certain types of medicine (i.e. Allegra, Amikozit, Amlodis, Arifay, Artril+ Dolven, Azro, Delix Protect, Eveptin+Gabtin, Festal, Helicol, Lasix, Mirtaron, Nasacort, Nortan, Piogtan, Prosek, Rifocin, Sarvas, Sarvastan, Sempriban, Tamprost, Tavanic, Trental, Zaltrap, Zepahex, Sefotak, Zentovir, Taxotere) and granted individual exemption to the relevant agreement with respect to other types of medicine (i.e. Amaryl, Antibit, Apidra, Arava, Bemiks, Bemiks Ampul, Clexane, Cordarone, Coumadin, Depakin, Dermo-Rest, Delix, Diazomid, Dideral, Dogmatil+Sulpir, Emedur, Excegran, Fasturtec, Flantadatin, Fludara, Furacin, Jevtana, Karvea, Karvezide, Lantus, Muscoril, Nibulan, Nörofren, Paranox, Paranox-S, Plaquenil, Plavix, Bi-Profenid, Rilutek, Sabril, Sanasol, Seralin, Sinopryl, Sinoretik, Solian, Surgam, Synvisc, Targocid, Xatral, Prepar, Enterogermina).

 

The Board granted individual exemption to the card data retention service that will be provided by Bankalararası Kart Merkezi A.Ş. (23.3.2017, 17-11/134-61)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) granted individual exemption to the card data retention service that will be provided by Bankalararası Kart Merkezi A.Ş., which will be terminated after one year beginning from the date of the decision.

 

The Board approved the merger of Entco Spinco Inc. (which has acquired the software business of Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company) and Micro Focus International Plc (13.3.2017, 17-10/115-51)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the merger of Entco Spinco Inc. (which has acquired the software business of Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company) and Micro Focus International Plc.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of sole control of Kurt ve Kurt İthalat İhracat ve Mümessillik A.Ş by Hitachi Ltd. (13.3.2017, 17-10/118-53)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of sole control of Kurt ve Kurt İthalat İhracat ve Mümessillik A.Ş by Hitachi Ltd.

 

The Board granted individual exemption to the “Cooperation Agreement” concerning the advertisement of Seretide branded products signed between GlaxoSmithKline İlaçları San. ve Tic. A.Ş. and Bilim İlaç San. ve Tic. A.Ş.(13.3.2017, 17-10/119-54)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) granted individual exemption to the “Cooperation Agreement” concerning the advertisement of Seretide branded products signed between GlaxoSmithKline İlaçları San. ve Tic. A.Ş. and Bilim İlaç San. ve Tic. A.Ş.

 

The Board has launched full-fledged investigation against ADM Elektrik Dağıtım A.Ş., Aydem Elektrik Perakende Satış A.Ş., GDZ Elektrik Dağıtım A.Ş., Gediz Elektrik Perakende Satış A.Ş., Bereket Enerji Grubu A.Ş. and GDZ Enerji Yatırımları A.Ş. (16.02.2017, 17-07/69-M)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) concluded the preliminary investigation conducted based on the allegations that ADM Elektrik Dağıtım A.Ş., Aydem Elektrik Perakende Satış A.Ş., GDZ Elektrik Dağıtım A.Ş. and Gediz Elektrik Perakende Satış A.Ş have violated Law No. 4054 by way of restraining the activities of independent suppliers, restricting the consumers’ right to choose their own suppliers.

In its meeting dated 16.02.2017, the Board has evaluated the information and documents obtained during the pre-investigation and assessed that the findings were serious and sufficient to launch an investigation against (i) ADM Elektrik Dağıtım A.Ş., (ii) Aydem Elektrik Perakende Satış A.Ş., (iii) GDZ Elektrik Dağıtım A.Ş.GDZ Enerji Yatırımları A.Ş., (iv) Bereket Enerji Grubu A.Ş., and (v) Gediz Elektrik Perakende Satış A.Ş., in order to determine whether the relevant undertakings have violated Article 6 of Law No. 4054, by its decision numbered 17-07/69-M. 

 

The Board has concluded the investigation conducted against Aslanlar Metal Alüminyum P.V.C. Plastik İmalatı İth. İhr. San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti. and Solar-San Vakumlu Cam Tüp Üretim San. ve Tic. A.Ş. (23.02.2017, 17-08/100-43).

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) has announced that the investigation conducted against Aslanlar Metal Alüminyum P.V.C. Plastik İmalatı İth. İhr. San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti. and Solar-San Vakumlu Cam Tüp Üretim San. ve Tic. A.Ş., based on the allegations that the undertakings concerned have violated Article 4 of Law No. 4054 by way of agreeing to limit the supply and/or increase the prices of vacuumed class tube caps.

As a result of the Board’s meeting dated 23.02.2017, the Board concluded that the undertakings concerned have not violated Article 4 of Law No. 4054 and therefore decided not to impose any administrative monetary fines on the undertakings pursuant to Article 16 of Law No. 4054.

 

The Board published the reasoned decision on the negative clearance/individual exemption request for the Ground Services Agreement signed between TGS Yer Hizmetleri A.Ş. and Türk Hava Yolları A.O. (15.12.2016, 16-44/707-320)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) published the reasoned decision on the negative clearance/individual exemption request for the Ground Services Agreement signed between TGS Yer Hizmetleri A.Ş. (“TGS”) and Türk Hava Yolları A.O. (“THY”).

THY is an Istanbul based private company, which is regarded as Turkey’s flag carrier, operating flights to 284 spots, comprising of 43 domestic and 235 international destinations. With respect to its flight network, THY stands as the 4th company among the list of the companies which have the largest flight networks. TGS has been established as a joint venture company by THY and Havaalanları Yer Hizmetleri A.Ş. (“HAVAŞ”). It is indicated within the decision that the Board has previously approved the establishment of TGS with its decision dated 27.08.2009 and numbered 09-40/986-248.

 

The Board published the reasoned decision on the individual exemption request for the Importer Agreement signed between Volvo Truck Corporation and Temsa İş Makinaları İmalat Pazarlama ve Satış A.Ş. (06.12.2016, 16-42/692-310)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) published the reasoned decision on the individual exemption request for the Importer Agreement signed between Volvo Truck Corporation (“VTC”) and Temsa İş Makinaları İmalat Pazarlama ve Satış A.Ş. (“TEMSA”). Both of the parties area of activity is fundamentally concerned with the manufacture and distribution of heavy commercial vehicles.

In its reasoned decision, the Board found that the scope of the agreement is related with the exclusive appointment of TEMSA by VTC, regarding marketing, sales and distribution of truck frames, accessories, parts and repair, maintenance, advance delivery, guarantee procedures and free-of-charge services rendered in Turkey. In this regard, the Board defined the relevant product market as “the market for the sales of heavy commercial vehicles”, “the market for the spare parts related to heavy commercial vehicles” and “the market for the repair and maintenance of Volvo branded vehicles”.

 

The Board granted individual exemption to the sub-license agreements signed between Türkiye Garanti Bankası A.Ş. and four other banks; namely Türkiye Vakıflar Bankası T.A.O., Denizbank A.Ş., Türkiye İş Bankası A.Ş. and Türk Ekonomi Bankası A.Ş. (28.02.2017, 17-09/106-48)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) granted individual exemption to the sub-license agreements regarding the approval of American Express credit cards, signed between Türkiye Garanti Bankası A.Ş. and four other banks; namely Türkiye Vakıflar Bankası T.A.O., Denizbank A.Ş., Türkiye İş Bankası A.Ş. and Türk Ekonomi Bankası A.Ş.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of indirect control of Cerba Healthcare by Public Sector Pension Investment Board and Partners Group AG (28.02.2017, 17-09/104-47)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of indirect control over Cerba Healthcare by Public Sector Pension Investment Board and Partners Group AG.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of sole control over Korozo Ambalaj San. ve Tic. A.Ş. , Koroplast Temizlik Ambalaj Ürün. San. ve Dış Tic. A.Ş, Meltem Turizm Tic. ve San. A.Ş., and Aslan Klişecilik San. ve Tic. A.Ş. by Actera Group (28.02.2017, 17-09/103-46)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition sole control over Korozo Ambalaj San. ve Tic. A.Ş. , Koroplast Temizlik Ambalaj Ürün. San. ve Dış Tic. A.Ş, Meltem Turizm Tic. ve San. A.Ş., and Aslan Klişecilik San. ve Tic. A.Ş. by Actera Group.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of certain amount of shares of Asay İletişim Hizmetleri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş., Asay VAD Otomasyon Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş., Asay Enerji İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. and Asay Elektronik Malzemeleri Servis Hizmetleri Sanayi ve Ticaret Ltd. Şti. by EOH Turkey Bilişim ve Yazılım Hizmetleri A.Ş. (23.02.2017, 17-08/85-35)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of certain amount of shares of Asay İletişim Hizmetleri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş., Asay VAD Otomasyon Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş., Asay Enerji İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. and Asay Elektronik Malzemeleri Servis Hizmetleri Sanayi ve Ticaret Ltd. Şti. by EOH Turkey Bilişim ve Yazılım Hizmetleri A.Ş.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of sole control over Lumileds Holding B.V. by Apollo Management, L.P. (23.02.2017, 17-08/86-36)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of sole control over Lumileds Holding B.V. by Apollo Management, L.P.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of the majority shares of Hisarlar Makina Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. by Mahindra & Mahindra Limited (16.02.2017, 17-07/67-27)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of the majority shares of Hisarlar Makina Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. by Mahindra & Mahindra Limited.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of Bolu Kalite Yem Sanayi A.Ş. by Erpiliç Entegre Tavukçuluk Üretim Pazarlama ve Ticaret Ltd. Şti. (16.02.2017, 17-07/70-29)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of Bolu Kalite Yem Sanayi A.Ş. by Erpiliç Entegre Tavukçuluk Üretim Pazarlama ve Ticaret Ltd. Şti.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of sole control over Banvit Bandırma Vitaminli Yem Sanayi A.Ş. by BRF S.A. (16.02.2017, 17-07/71-30)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of sole control over Banvit Bandırma Vitaminli Yem Sanayi A.Ş. by BRF S.A.

 

The Board approved the transaction regarding the establishment of a joint venture by JFE Steel Corporation and Baosteel Metal Co. Ltd. (16.02.2017, 17-07/76-32)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the transaction regarding the establishment of a joint venture by JFE Steel Corporation and Baosteel Metal Co. Ltd.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of sole control over Rubis Med Energy B.V. by Rubis Terminal SA (09.02.2017, 17-06/48-16)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of sole control over Rubis Med Energy B.V., jointly controlled by Rubis Terminal SA and Med Energy Holding SAL, by Rubis Terminal SA.

 

The Board approved the acquisition of joint control over Kering Eyewear S.p.A. by Richemont International S.A (09.02.2017, 17-06/55-21)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) approved the acquisition of joint control over Kering Eyewear S.p.A. by Richemont International S.A.

 

The Board has pronounced its final decision on the full-fledged investigation conducted against Aslanlar Metal Alüminyum P.V.C. Plastik İmalatı İth. İhr. San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti. and Solar-San Vakumlu Cam Tüp Üretim San. ve Tic. A.Ş. (23.02.2017, 17-08/100-43)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) recently pronounced its final decision regarding the full-fledged investigation conducted against Aslanlar Metal Alüminyum P.V.C. Plastik İmalatı İth. İhr. San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti. (“Aslanlar”) and Solar-San Vakumlu Cam Tüp Üretim San. ve Tic. A.Ş. (“Solar”) in order to determine whether the relevant undertakings have violated Article 4 of Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (“Law No. 4054”) through restricting supply and/or increasing the prices of glass tubes. 

Through its decision dated 23.02.2017 and numbered 17-08/100-43, the Board has decided that the relevant undertakings have not violated Article 4 of Law No. 4054 and consequently refrained from imposing any monetary fines.

 

The Board has launched a full-fledged investigation against sixteen auto gas distributors within Adıyaman city center (19.01.2017, 17-03/22-M)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) concluded the preliminary investigation conducted based on the allegations that sixteen auto gas distributors within Adıyaman city center have raised prices by coming terms with one another.

The Board found that the relevant allegations and findings are serious and adequate and decided to launch a full-fledged investigation through its meeting dated 19.01.2017 2016 and with its decision numbered 17-03/22-M, in order to determine whether the undertakings indicated below violated Article 4 of Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (“Law No. 4054”).

  1. Ünal Turizm Uluslararası Taşımacılık ve Ticaret Ltd. Şti.,
  2. Beyazyıldız Madeni Yağlar ve Petrol Ürünleri Turizm Gıda Otomotiv Tic. ve San. Ltd. Şti.,
  3. Atayoğlu Petrol Ürünleri Tekstil Gıda İnşaat Turizm Otomotiv San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  4. Tohumcu Akaryakıt Taşımacılık Oto Lastikleri İnşaat San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  5. Dostlar Akaryakıt Nakliyat Gıda ve Yem San. Tic. A.Ş.,
  6. Mustafa Dağdevran,
  7. Mustafa Yücel Petrol Akaryakıt Turizm Nakliyat San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  8. Karınca Akaryakıt Enerji İnşaat Orman Ürünleri Nakliye San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  9. Öncebe Petrol İnşaat San. ve Tic. A.Ş.,
  10. Adıyaman İpek Akaryakıt Otomotiv Gübre İnşaat Nakliye San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  11. Doğkar Akaryakıt Turizm Gıda Taşımacılık İnşaat Temizlik San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  12. Celaloğulları Akaryakıt Gıda Otomotiv Nakliyat İnşaat San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  13. Alibeyoğulları Akaryakıt Doğalgaz İnşaat Mühendislik Taşımacılık Gübre San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  14. Daşcanlar Akaryakıt Taşımacılık İnşaat Demir Çelik Metal Gıda San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,
  15. Gap Akaryakıt Nakliyat Gıda İletişim Madencilik Yedek Parça San. ve Tic. A.Ş.,
  16. Denyıl Akaryakıt Nakliye Tekstil Gıda Turizm İnşaat San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti.,

 

The Board has launched a full-fledged investigation against the economic entity consisting of Türk Telekomünikasyon A.Ş. and TTNET A.Ş (19.01.2017, 17-03/25-M)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) concluded the preliminary investigation conducted based on the allegations that the economic entity consisting of Türk Telekomünikasyon A.Ş. and TTNET A.Ş has abused its dominance by way of fixed broad band internet and packages including paid TV services. 

The Board found that the relevant allegations and findings are serious and adequate and decided to launch a full-fledged investigation through its meeting dated 19.01.2017 and with its decision numbered 17-03/25-M, in order to determine whether the economic entity consisting of Türk Telekomünikasyon A.Ş. and TTNET A.Ş violated Article 6 of Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition.

 

The Board published its reasoned decision on the preliminary investigation conducted against Yüce Auto Motorlu Taşıtlar Tic. A.Ş. and Doğuş Otomotiv Servis ve Tic. A.Ş. (16.11.2016, 16-39/649-290)

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) recently published its reasoned decision on the preliminary investigation conducted against Yüce Auto Motorlu Taşıtlar Tic. A.Ş. and Doğuş Otomotiv Servis ve Tic. A.Ş., based on the allegations that Yüce Auto Motorlu Taşıtlar Tic. A.Ş. (“Yüce Auto”) that is the distributor of Skoda vehicles, has violated the Block Exemption Communiqué No. 2005/4 for Vertical Agreements and Concerted Practices in the Motor Vehicle Sector (“Communiqué No. 2005/4”) by implementing discriminatory applications amongst its authorized sellers and/or services. In 1999, Yüce Auto and Doğuş Otomotiv Servis ve Tic. A.Ş (“Doğuş Otomotiv”) has initiated a partnership regarding the Skoda brand.

The Board indicated that in line with the previous Competition Board decisions the relevant product market could be defined as “the market for new personal automobiles” and “the market for after sales services with respect to Skoda vehicles”, however did not make a precise relevant product market definition by making reference to the Paragraph 20 of the Competition Authority’s Guidelines on Relevant Market, which states that that the market definition can be left open in cases where the transaction in question does not raise competition law concerns regardless of the market definition.

 

The Board published its reasoned decision on Roche Müstahzarları Sanayi A.Ş.’s request for granting individual exemption to the exclusive tender store agreement concluded with MTS İlaç Dağıtım Ticaret A.Ş. (16.11.2016, 16-39/642-288).

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) recently published its reasoned decision on the Roche Müstaharları Sanayi A.Ş.’s (“Roche”) request for granting individual exemption to the exclusive tender store agreement concluded with MTS İlaç Dağıtım Ticaret A.Ş. (“MTS”). Roche, that is the Turkish subsidiary of F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. based in Basel, Switzerland, is active in the sectors for medicine for human use and diagnostic equipment. MTS, that is based in Istanbul, is involved in the wholesale trade of basic pharmaceutics products and pharmaceutical preparations.

This document is not intended to create an attorney-client relationship. You should not act or rely on any information in this document without first seeking legal advice. This material is intended for general information purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. If you have any specific questions on any legal matter, you should consult a professional legal services provider.

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A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.