India: Key Provisions Of Singapore International Arbitration Centre (SIAC)

Last Updated: 20 July 2018

This is a ready reference for certain important provisions of Singapore International Arbitration Centre (SIAC)

Rule 1: Scope of Application and Interpretation

1.1 Where the parties have agreed to refer their disputes to SIAC for arbitration or to arbitration in accordance with the SIAC Rules, the parties shall be deemed to have agreed that the arbitration shall be conducted pursuant to and administered by SIAC in accordance with these Rules.

1.2 These Rules shall come into force on 1 August 2016 and, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, shall apply to any arbitration which is commenced on or after that date.

1.3 In these Rules:

"Award" includes a partial, interim or final award and an award of an Emergency Arbitrator;

"Committee of the Court" means a committee consisting of not less than two members of the Court appointed by the President (which may include the President);

"Court" means the Court of Arbitration of SIAC and includes a Committee of the Court;

"Emergency Arbitrator" means an arbitrator appointed in accordance with paragraph 3 of Schedule 1;

"Practice Notes" mean the guidelines published by the Registrar from time to time to supplement, regulate and implement these Rules;

"President" means the President of the Court and includes any Vice President and the Registrar;

"Registrar" means the Registrar of the Court and includes any Deputy Registrar;

"Rules" means the Arbitration Rules of the Singapore International Arbitration Centre (6th Edition, 1 August 2016);

"SIAC" means the Singapore International Arbitration Centre; and

"Tribunal" includes a sole arbitrator or all the arbitrators where more than one arbitrator is appointed.

Any pronoun in these Rules shall be understood to be gender-neutral. Any singular noun shall be understood to refer to the plural in the appropriate circumstances.

Rule 3: Notice of Arbitration

3.1 A party wishing to commence an arbitration under these Rules (the "Claimant") shall file with the Registrar a Notice of Arbitration which shall include:

  • a demand that the dispute be referred to arbitration;
  • the names, addresses, telephone numbers, facsimile numbers and electronic mail addresses, if known, of the parties to the arbitration and their representatives, if any;
  • a reference to the arbitration agreement invoked and a copy of the arbitration agreement;
  • a reference to the contract or other instrument (e.g. investment treaty) out of or in relation to which the dispute arises and, where possible, a copy of the contract or other instrument;
  • a brief statement describing the nature and circumstances of the dispute, specifying the relief claimed and, where possible, an initial quantification of the claim amount;
  • a statement of any matters which the parties have previously agreed as to the conduct of the arbitration or with respect to which the Claimant wishes to make a proposal;
  • a proposal for the number of arbitrators if not specified in the arbitration agreement;
  • unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the nomination of an arbitrator if the arbitration agreement provides for three arbitrators, or a proposal for a sole arbitrator if the arbitration agreement provides for a sole arbitrator;
  • any comment as to the applicable rules of law;
  • any comment as to the language of the arbitration; and
  • payment of the requisite filing fee under these Rules.

3.2 The Notice of Arbitration may also include the Statement of Claim referred to in Rule 20.2.

3.3 The date of receipt of the complete Notice of Arbitration by the Registrar shall be deemed to be the date of commencement of the arbitration. For the avoidance of doubt, the Notice of Arbitration is deemed to be complete when all the requirements of Rule 3.1 and Rule 6.1(b) (if applicable) are fulfilled or when the Registrar determines that there has been substantial compliance with such requirements. SIAC shall notify the parties of the commencement of the arbitration.

3.4 The Claimant shall, at the same time as it files the Notice of Arbitration with the Registrar, send a copy of the Notice of Arbitration to the Respondent, and shall notify the Registrar that it has done so, specifying the mode of service employed and the date of service.

Rule 4: Response to the Notice of Arbitration

4.1 The Respondent shall file a Response with the Registrar within 14 days of receipt of the Notice of Arbitration. The Response shall include:

a. a confirmation or denial of all or part of the claims, including, where possible, any plea that the Tribunal lacks jurisdiction;

b. a brief statement describing the nature and circumstances of any counterclaim, specifying the relief claimed and, where possible, an initial quantification of the counterclaim amount;

c. any comment in response to any statements contained in the Notice of Arbitration under Rule 3.1 or any comment with respect to the matters covered in such Rule;

d. unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the nomination of an arbitrator if the arbitration agreement provides for three arbitrators or, if the arbitration agreement provides for a sole arbitrator, comments on the Claimant's proposal for a sole arbitrator or a counter-proposal; and

e. payment of the requisite filing fee under these Rules for any counterclaim.

4.2 The Response may also include the Statement of Defence and a Statement of Counterclaim, as referred to in Rule 20.3 and Rule 20.4.

4.3 The Respondent shall, at the same time as it files the Response with the Registrar, send a copy of the Response to the Claimant, and shall notify the Registrar that it has done so, specifying the mode of service employed and the date of service.

Rule 5: Expedited Procedure

5.1 Prior to the constitution of the Tribunal, a party may file an application with the Registrar for the arbitral proceedings to be conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure under this Rule, provided that any of the following criteria is satisfied:

  • the amount in dispute does not exceed the equivalent amount of S$6,000,000, representing the aggregate of the claim, counterclaim and any defence of set-off;
  • the parties so agree; or
  • in cases of exceptional urgency.

The party applying for the arbitral proceedings to be conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure under this Rule 5.1 shall, at the same time as it files an application for the proceedings to be conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure with the Registrar, send a copy of the application to the other party and shall notify the Registrar that it has done so, specifying the mode of service employed and the date of service.

5.2 Where a party has filed an application with the Registrar under Rule 5.1, and where the President determines, after considering the views of the parties, and having regard to the circumstances of the case, that the arbitral proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure, the following procedure shall apply:

  • the Registrar may abbreviate any time limits under these Rules;
  • the case shall be referred to a sole arbitrator, unless the President determines otherwise;
  • the Tribunal may, in consultation with the parties, decide if the dispute is to be decided on the basis of documentary evidence only, or if a hearing is required for the examination of any witness and expert witness as well as for any oral argument;
  • the final Award shall be made within six months from the date when the Tribunal is constituted unless, in exceptional circumstances, the Registrar extends the time for making such final Award; and
  • the Tribunal may state the reasons upon which the final Award is based in summary form, unless the parties have agreed that no reasons are to be given.

5.3 By agreeing to arbitration under these Rules, the parties agree that, where arbitral proceedings are conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure under this Rule 5, the rules and procedures set forth in Rule 5.2 shall apply even in cases where the arbitration agreement contains contrary terms.

5.4 Upon application by a party, and after giving the parties the opportunity to be heard, the Tribunal may, having regard to any further information as may subsequently become available, and in consultation with the Registrar, order that the arbitral proceedings shall no longer be conducted in accordance with the Expedited Procedure. Where the Tribunal decides to grant an application under this Rule 5.4, the arbitration shall continue to be conducted by the same Tribunal that was constituted to conduct the arbitration in accordance with the Expedited Procedure.

Rule 9: Number and Appointment of Arbitrators

9.1 A sole arbitrator shall be appointed in any arbitration under these Rules unless the parties have otherwise agreed; or it appears to the Registrar, giving due regard to any proposals by the parties, that the complexity, the quantum involved or other relevant circumstances of the dispute, warrants the appointment of three arbitrators.

9.2 If the parties have agreed that any arbitrator is to be appointed by one or more of the parties, or by any third person including by the arbitrators already appointed, that agreement shall be deemed an agreement to nominate an arbitrator under these Rules.

9.3 In all cases, the arbitrators nominated by the parties, or by any third person including by the arbitrators already appointed, shall be subject to appointment by the President in his discretion.

9.4 The President shall appoint an arbitrator as soon as practicable. Any decision by the President to appoint an arbitrator under these Rules shall be final and not subject to appeal.

9.5 The President may appoint any nominee whose appointment has already been suggested or proposed by any party.

9.6 The terms of appointment of each arbitrator shall be fixed by the Registrar in accordance with these Rules and any Practice Notes for the time being in force, or in accordance with the agreement of the parties.

Rule 10: Sole Arbitrator

10.1 If a sole arbitrator is to be appointed, either party may propose to the other party the names of one or more persons to serve as the sole arbitrator. Where the parties have reached an agreement on the nomination of a sole arbitrator, Rule 9.3 shall apply.

10.2 If within 21 days after the date of commencement of the arbitration, or within the period otherwise agreed by the parties or set by the Registrar, the parties have not reached an agreement on the nomination of a sole arbitrator, or if at any time either party so requests, the President shall appoint the sole arbitrator

Rule 11: Three Arbitrators

11.1 If three arbitrators are to be appointed, each party shall nominate one arbitrator.

11.2 If a party fails to make a nomination of an arbitrator within 14 days after receipt of a party's nomination of an arbitrator, or within the period otherwise agreed by the parties or set by the Registrar, the President shall proceed to appoint an arbitrator on its behalf.

11.3 Unless the parties have agreed upon another procedure for appointing the third arbitrator, or if such agreed procedure does not result in a nomination within the period agreed by the parties or set by the Registrar, the President shall appoint the third arbitrator, who shall be the presiding arbitrator.

Rule 19: Conduct of the Proceedings

19.1 The Tribunal shall conduct the arbitration in such manner as it considers appropriate, after consulting with the parties, to ensure the fair, expeditious, economical and final resolution of the dispute.

19.2 The Tribunal shall determine the relevance, materiality and admissibility of all evidence. The Tribunal is not required to apply the rules of evidence of any applicable law in making such determination.

19.3 As soon as practicable after the constitution of the Tribunal, the Tribunal shall conduct a preliminary meeting with the parties, in person or by any other means, to discuss the procedures that will be most appropriate and efficient for the case.

19.4 The Tribunal may, in its discretion, direct the order of proceedings, bifurcate proceedings, exclude cumulative or irrelevant testimony or other evidence and direct the parties to focus their presentations on issues the decision of which could dispose of all or part of the case.

19.5 Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the presiding arbitrator may make procedural rulings alone, subject to revision by the Tribunal.

19.6 All statements, documents or other information supplied to the Tribunal and/or the Registrar by a party shall simultaneously be communicated to the other party.

19.7 The President may, at any stage of the proceedings, request the parties and the Tribunal to convene a meeting to discuss the procedures that will be most appropriate and efficient for the case.

Rule 21: Seat of the Arbitration

21.1 The parties may agree on the seat of the arbitration. Failing such an agreement, the seat of the arbitration shall be determined by the Tribunal, having regard to all the circumstances of the case.

21.2 The Tribunal may hold hearings and meetings by any means it considers expedient or appropriate and at any location it considers convenient or appropriate.

Rule 30: Interim and Emergency Relief

30.1 The Tribunal may, at the request of a party, issue an order or an Award granting an injunction or any other interim relief it deems appropriate. The Tribunal may order the party requesting interim relief to provide appropriate security in connection with the relief sought.

30.2 A party that wishes to seek emergency interim relief prior to the constitution of the Tribunal may apply for such relief pursuant to the procedures set forth in Schedule 1.

30.3 A request for interim relief made by a party to a judicial authority prior to the constitution of the Tribunal, or in exceptional circumstances thereafter, is not incompatible with these Rules.

Rule 31: Applicable Law, Amiable Compositeur and Ex Aequoet Bono

31.1 The Tribunal shall apply the law or rules of law designated by the parties as applicable to the substance of the dispute. Failing such designation by the parties, the Tribunal shall apply the law or rules of law which it determines to be appropriate.

31.2 The Tribunal shall decide as amiable compositeur or ex aequoet bono only if the parties have expressly authorised it to do so.

31.3 In all cases, the Tribunal shall decide in accordance with the terms of the contract, if any, and shall take into account any applicable usage of trade.

Rule 32: The Award

32.1 The Tribunal shall, as promptly as possible, after consulting with the parties and upon being satisfied that the parties have no further relevant and material evidence to produce or submission to make with respect to the matters to be decided in the Award, declare the proceedings closed. The Tribunal's declaration that the proceedings are closed shall be communicated to the parties and to the Registrar.

32.2 The Tribunal may, on its own motion or upon application of a party but before any Award is made, re-open the proceedings. The Tribunal's decision that the proceedings are to be re-opened shall be communicated to the parties and to the Registrar. The Tribunal shall close any re-opened proceedings in accordance with Rule 32.1.

32.3 Before making any Award, the Tribunal shall submit such Award in draft form to the Registrar. Unless the Registrar extends the period of time or unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the Tribunal shall submit the draft Award to the Registrar not later than 45 days from the date on which the Tribunal declares the proceedings closed. The Registrar may, as soon as practicable, suggest modifications as to the form of the Award and, without affecting the Tribunal's liberty to decide the dispute, draw the Tribunal's attention to points of substance. No Award shall be made by the Tribunal until it has been approved by the Registrar as to its form.

32.4 The Award shall be in writing and shall state the reasons upon which it is based unless the parties have agreed that no reasons are to be given.

32.5 Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the Tribunal may make separate Awards on different issues at different times.

32.6 If any arbitrator fails to cooperate in the making of the Award, having been given a reasonable opportunity to do so, the remaining arbitrators may proceed. The remaining arbitrators shall provide written notice of such refusal or failure to the Registrar, the parties and the absent arbitrator. In deciding whether to proceed with the arbitration in the absence of an arbitrator, the remaining arbitrators may take into account, among other things, the stage of the arbitration, any explanation provided by the absent arbitrator for his refusal to participate and the effect, if any, upon the enforceability of the Award should the remaining arbitrators proceed without the absent arbitrator. The remaining arbitrators shall explain in any Award made the reasons for proceeding without the absent arbitrator.

32.7 Where there is more than one arbitrator, the Tribunal shall decide by a majority. Failing a majority decision, the presiding arbitrator alone shall make the Award for the Tribunal.

32.8 The Award shall be delivered to the Registrar, who shall transmit certified copies to the parties upon full settlement of the costs of the arbitration.

32.9 The Tribunal may award simple or compound interest on any sum which is the subject of the arbitration at such rates as the parties may have agreed or, in the absence of such agreement, as the Tribunal determines to be appropriate, in respect of any period which the Tribunal determines to be appropriate.

32.10 In the event of a settlement, and if the parties so request, the Tribunal may make a consent Award recording the settlement. If the parties do not require a consent Award, the parties shall confirm to the Registrar that a settlement has been reached, following which the Tribunal shall be discharged and the arbitration concluded upon full settlement of the costs of the arbitration.

32.11 Subject to Rule 33 and Schedule 1, by agreeing to arbitration under these Rules, the parties agree that any Award shall be final and binding on the parties from the date it is made, and undertake to carry out the Award immediately and without delay. The parties also irrevocably waive their rights to any form of appeal, review or recourse to any State court or other judicial authority with respect to such Award insofar as such waiver may be validly made.

32.12 SIAC may, with the consent of the parties and the Tribunal, publish any Award with the names of the parties and other identifying information redacted.

SCHEDULE 1

Emergency Arbitrator

1. A party that wishes to seek emergency interim relief may, concurrent with or following the filing of a Notice of Arbitration but prior to the constitution of the Tribunal, file an application for emergency interim relief with the Registrar. The party shall, at the same time as it files the application for emergency interim relief, send a copy of the application to all other parties. The application for emergency interim relief shall include:

  • the nature of the relief sought;
  • the reasons why the party is entitled to such relief; and
  • a statement certifying that all other parties have been provided with a copy of the application or, if not, an explanation of the steps taken in good faith to provide a copy or notification to all other parties.

2. Any application for emergency interim relief shall be accompanied by payment of the non-refundable administration fee and the requisite deposits under these Rules towards the Emergency Arbitrator's fees and expenses for proceedings pursuant to this Schedule 1. In appropriate cases, the Registrar may increase the amount of the deposits requested from the party making the application. If the additional deposits are not paid within the time limit set by the Registrar, the application shall be considered as withdrawn.

3. The President shall, if he determines that SIAC should accept the application for emergency interim relief, seek to appoint an Emergency Arbitrator within one day of receipt by the Registrar of such application and payment of the administration fee and deposits.

4. If the parties have agreed on the seat of the arbitration, such seat shall be the seat of the proceedings for emergency interim relief. Failing such an agreement, the seat of the proceedings for emergency interim relief shall be Singapore, without prejudice to the Tribunal's determination of the seat of the arbitration under Rule 21.1.

5. Prior to accepting appointment, a prospective Emergency Arbitrator shall disclose to the Registrar any circumstances that may give rise to justifiable doubts as to his impartiality or independence. Any challenge to the appointment of the Emergency Arbitrator must be made within two days of the communication by the Registrar to the parties of the appointment of the Emergency Arbitrator and the circumstances disclosed.

6.An Emergency Arbitrator may not act as an arbitrator in any future arbitration relating to the dispute, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

7. The Emergency Arbitrator shall, as soon as possible but, in any event, within two days of his appointment, establish a schedule for consideration of the application for emergency interim relief. Such schedule shall provide a reasonable opportunity for the parties to be heard, but may provide for proceedings by telephone or video conference or on written submissions as alternatives to a hearing in person. The Emergency Arbitrator shall have the powers vested in the Tribunal pursuant to these Rules, including the authority to rule on his own jurisdiction, without prejudice to the Tribunal's determination.

8. The Emergency Arbitrator shall have the power to order or award any interim relief that he deems necessary, including preliminary orders that may be made pending any hearing, telephone or video conference or written submissions by the parties. The Emergency Arbitrator shall give summary reasons for his decision in writing. The Emergency Arbitrator may modify or vacate the preliminary order, the interim order or Award for good cause.

9. The Emergency Arbitrator shall make his interim order or Award within 14 days from the date of his appointment unless, in exceptional circumstances, the Registrar extends the time. No interim order or Award shall be made by the Emergency Arbitrator until it has been approved by the Registrar as to its form.

10. The Emergency Arbitrator shall have no power to act after the Tribunal is constituted. The Tribunal may reconsider, modify or vacate any interim order or Award issued by the Emergency Arbitrator, including a ruling on his own jurisdiction. The Tribunal is not bound by the reasons given by the Emergency Arbitrator. Any interim order or Award issued by the Emergency Arbitrator shall, in any event, cease to be binding if the Tribunal is not constituted within 90 days of such order or Award or when the Tribunal makes a final Award or if the claim is withdrawn.

11. Any interim order or Award by the Emergency Arbitrator may be conditioned on provision by the party seeking such relief of appropriate security.

12. The parties agree that an order or Award by an Emergency Arbitrator pursuant to this Schedule 1 shall be binding on the parties from the date it is made, and undertake to carry out the interim order or Award immediately and without delay. The parties also irrevocably waive their rights to any form of appeal, review or recourse to any State court or other judicial authority with respect to such Award insofar as such waiver may be validly made.

13. The costs associated with any application pursuant to this Schedule 1 may initially be apportioned by the Emergency Arbitrator, subject to the power of the Tribunal to determine finally the apportionment of such costs.

14. These Rules shall apply as appropriate to any proceeding pursuant to this Schedule 1, taking into account the urgency of such a proceeding. The Emergency Arbitrator may decide in what manner these Rules shall apply as appropriate, and his decision as to such matters is final and not subject to appeal, review or recourse. The Registrar may abbreviate any time limits under these Rules in applications made pursuant to proceedings commenced under Rule 30.2 and Schedule 1.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

This document is not intended to create an attorney-client relationship. You should not act or rely on any information in this document without first seeking legal advice. This material is intended for general information purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. If you have any specific questions on any legal matter, you should consult a professional legal services provider.

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