Uruguay: La Corrupción En La Actividad Privada: Proponen Regularla

Last Updated: 15 September 2017
Article by Maria Emilia Mareco

Uruguay se encuentra en un proceso de "aggiornamento" de la normativa en general.

De este proceso no podía escapar un asunto tan relevante y tan en boga en los últimos tiempos como lo es, la corrupción, definida esta como la practica consistente en abusar del poder, de la posición que se detenta dentro de determinada institución, de la función que se desempeña o de los medios a los que se tiene acceso en razón de un cargo para obtener un provecho económico o de otra índole. Esta práctica ha quedado al descubierto gracias a las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, los avances en la conciencia de los pueblos que piden a gritos soluciones legislativas a los problemas que los azotan y la globalización de las relaciones económicas. La corrupción en la definición que venimos de dar no es exclusiva del poder público sino que existe y existió siempre en el ámbito privado.

La Convención de Naciones Unidas contra la Corrupción sancionada por la Asamblea General de la ONU el 31 de octubre de 2003 y ratificada por Uruguay a través de la ley 18056 es un instrumento internacional que surge de la toma de conciencia colectiva de que la corrupción no es ya un problema local sino más bien transnacional, sumado a esto la necesidad de lograr acuerdos para la prevención y tipificación de sus formasmás frecuentes tanto dentro del sector público como el privado, ya que sus consecuencias son devastadoras para países en desarrollo como es el caso de Uruguay.

En su artículo 12 la Convención trata el asunto desde el punto de vista del ámbito privado. Previendo la sanción de una normativa que tenga como bases fundamentales enfrentar, combatir y controlar el fenómeno. Para cumplir dicho objetivo se trazan ciertos lineamientos como promover la cooperación entre las instituciones públicas y las entidades privadas, fomentar la creación de normas para el correcto funcionamiento de estas entidades y el establecimiento de pautas para la transparencia y la publicidad de sus estados financieros, entre otras medidas.

En Uruguay existen ciertas normas de carácter preventivo y represivo que siguen estos lineamientos en el ámbito público. La legislación en materia penal trata diversas figuras tales como peculado, concusión, cohecho, tráfico de influencias y soborno que se identifican con el fenómeno tal como venimos de definirlo. Pero queda al descubierto una enorme carencia, la corrupción en el ámbito privado y la existencia de conflictos de intereses entre la actividad pública y privada. Situaciones no previstas en nuestra legislación y que son muy difícil de probar en virtud del pacto tácito que se genera entre el particular y el supuesto trabajador corrupto.

En la comisión de constitución, códigos, legislación general y administración se encuentra un proyecto de ley que plantea el tema de la corrupción en este ámbito.

Bajo el nomen iuris "Soborno en la actividad empresarial privada" se crea un tipo penal especifico, el delito de soborno.
Delito que tal como está tipificado admite la modalidad intencional, es decir, el sujeto activo que es el trabajador de la actividad privada que dirige una entidad o cumple cualquier función dentro de la misma, debe actuar con conciencia y voluntad, lo que significa que para que quede incluido en el tipo penal su actuar debe dirigirse a obtener un fin indebido. Esta actuación debe darse en el curso de actividades económicas, financieras o comerciales dentro de la actividad privada.El tipo penal describe dos formas de comisión; comisiva, esto es, dirigiendo su actuar de forma tal de faltar al deber inherente a su función y omisiva, es decir, absteniéndose de actuar.

Se tipifica la promesa, el ofrecimiento o concesión, la solicitud o aceptación de un beneficio que debe ser indebido y que redunde en su provecho o en el de otra persona. Así, el proyecto establece:
"La promesa, el ofrecimiento o la concesión, en forma directa o indirecta, a una persona que dirija una entidad del sector privado o cumpla cualquier función en ella, de un beneficio indebido que redunde en su propio provecho o en el de otra persona, con el fin de que, faltando al deber inherente a sus funciones, actúe o se abstenga de actuar". "La solicitud o aceptación, en forma directa o indirecta, por una persona que dirija una entidad del sector privado o cumpla cualquier función en ella, de un beneficio indebido que redunde en su propio provecho o en el de otra persona, con el fin de que, faltando al deber inherente a sus funciones, actúe o se abstenga de actuar."

En ambos casos hay un actuar desviado por parte del trabajador de la actividad privada motivado por un fin espurio.

No obstante las previsiones analizadas, la forma en cómo se proyecta el tipo penal, permite su definición como una norma penal incompleta pues necesita de otro precepto para completar la consecuencia jurídica. Para complementarla debemos recurrir a la norma prevista en el artículo 158 del Código Penal que tipifica el delito de Cohecho en su forma calificada tal y como lo indica la parte final del articulo proyectado. "Se seguirán las reglas en los aspectos generales que establece el artículo 158 del Código Penal." Por lo tanto creemos que la consecuencia jurídica, la pena aplicable, será la descripta en el artículo que venimos de mencionar en lo que sea atinente "...será castigado con doce meses de prisión a seis años de penitenciaría, inhabilitación especial de dos a seis años, y multa de 50 UR (cincuenta unidades reajustables) a 10.000 UR (diez mil unidades reajustables)." Lo mismo decimos respecto del aumento de la pena,"La pena será aumentada de un tercio a la mitad en los siguientes casos:

  1. Si el hecho tuviere por efecto la concesión de un empleo público,estipendios, pensiones, honores o el favor o el daño de las parteslitigantes en juicio civil o criminal.
  2. Si el hecho tuviere por efecto la celebración de un contrato en queestuviere interesada la repartición a la cual pertenece el funcionario o se realizare por medio de un uso abusivo de los procedimientos legales quedeben aplicarse por la Administración Pública en materia de adquisiciónde bienes y servicios."

Ahora bien, a nuestro criterio, la remisión no es la mejor solución y en consecuencia dicha pena y su aumento va a tener que ser prevista con mayor detalle pues, pues la referencia que se hace en la parte final del artículo proyectado genera más dudas que certezas.

Si bien queda mucho camino por recorrer para que este proyecto se convierta en ley, es de destacar el esfuerzo que seestá realizando en esta lucha por prevenir y combatir un fenómeno que daña principalmente a países en desarrollo necesitados no solo de una actividad privada fuerte y transparente para crecer, sino también con el requerimiento de generar un ámbito de confianza a nivel internacional.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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