Uruguay: Empleo Juvenil en Temporada Turística. Nuevas Facilidades

Last Updated: 30 January 2017
Article by Mauro Da Rocha

A fines del mes de diciembre, el Poder Ejecutivo aprobó un Decreto por medio del cual se otorgan nuevas facilidades para la contratación de jóvenes en temporada turística, en el marco de la ley de empleo juvenil y su reglamentación. A continuación analizaremos los requisitos, beneficios y características que regula la nueva normativa, y su relación con el régimen general de la contratación de empleo juvenil.

Lo que llevamos del 2017 nos da la perspectiva de que la actual temporada turística se perfila como una de las mejores de los últimos años. Este aspecto, sumado a las políticas públicas que se han venido llevando a cabo, en pos de fomentar la contratación de jóvenes, promoviendo sus primeras experiencias y/o ingreso en el mercado laboral formal, motivaron al gobierno a aprobar un Decreto que facilita la contratación de empleo juvenil para esta temporada.

La iniciativa surge a partir de inquietudes presentadas a INEFOP por parte del Sector Empresarial del Turismo y el Centro Comercial de Rocha. Desde allí se realiza la propuesta al Poder Ejecutivo, a fin de extender los beneficios de la ley de empleo juvenil para períodos cortos de tiempo, ya que la misma estipula un período mínimo de contratación de 6 meses, tiempo que excede la temporada turística.

Asimismo, en base a controles realizados por el Ministerio de Trabajo y otros organismos estatales, se ha constatado un gran nivel de informalidad en los trabajadores empleados en los comercios enfocados en el turismo, siendo motivación principal del Decreto alcanzar aumentar la formalidad en base a incentivos y beneficios.

El Decreto se enmarca en lo ya regulado sobre Empleo Juvenil, pero a su vez, introduce una nueva modalidad específica para contratos por temporada turística, con ciertas particularidades que analizaremos a continuación.

Características del nuevo decreto y su relación con el régimen general (Ley 19.133)

El programa que se crea mediante el nuevo Decreto se denomina "Programa de Empleo Juvenil Decente", y comprenderá las contrataciones que se realicen dentro del período entre el 1 de Diciembre de 2016 hasta el 30 de abril de 2017.

Dado que el Decreto en cuestión tiene su origen en las preocupaciones de comerciantes y prestadores de servicios de zonas turísticas, principalmente de balnearios de Rocha, es que se planteó la inquietud por lograr adaptar el régimen general de la ley de empleo juvenil y sus reglamentaciones, a las necesidades propias de la zona y la temporada turística.

Como expresáramos anteriormente, el régimen que plantea el Decreto es similar a lo que se denomina en la ley Nro. 19.133 "Programa de Primer Experiencia Laboral", en cuanto a los beneficios que se otorgan a las empresas participantes y los requisitos de edad de los trabajadores. No obstante, ambos programas poseen ciertas diferencias.

Al igual que en el régimen general se establece una limitante de edad, ya que aquellos jóvenes que se postulen deberán tener entre 15 y 24 años de edad. Asimismo también se requiere que dichos trabajadores carezcan de experiencia formal de trabajo por más de 90 días corridos.

En cuanto al punto de los antecedentes cabe señalar que el resultar beneficiario del "Programa de Empleo Juvenil Decente", no constituirá un antecedente laboral para la aplicación del régimen general. Es decir, que una misma persona puede ser beneficiaria hasta por dos oportunidades del programa de empleo juvenil en temporada, y a su vez, postularse para acceder a un contrato de primera experiencia laboral del régimen general.

Un punto a valorar, tanto para ésta modalidad de contratación estival, como para el régimen general de la ley de empleo juvenil, es que para el caso de la contratación de menores, se deberán tramitar los permisos correspondientes ante el INAU.

Por otra parte, es dable destacar que los períodos de contratación del régimen general no pueden ser inferiores a 6 meses, mientras que el nuevo Decreto otorga la posibilidad de contratar por períodos de 75 jornales o más, lo que resulta beneficioso para las necesidades de los empresarios del sector turístico y/o afines, e inclusive para los propios trabajadores.

A tener en cuenta por las empresas

Las empresas que soliciten contratos por medio de esta modalidad deberán cumplir con los requisitos del régimen general del empleo juvenil, como son acreditar estar al día con aportes de contribuciones de seguridad social, no haber rescindido contratos laborales o enviado a seguro de paro a trabajadores con similares tareas, exceptuando aquellos casos de notoria mala conducta.

Otro aspecto que deberá considerarse es que hay una limitación porcentual de la cantidad de trabajadores a contratar bajo esta modalidad, que no podrá exceder del 20% de la planilla permanente de la empresa.

Aquellas empresas que cuenten con hasta 10 trabajadores, podrán contratar un máximo de 2 empleados bajo el régimen del nuevo Decreto. No obstante se prevé que el Ministerio de Trabajo pueda otorgar excepciones, como por ejemplo a las empresas que se encuentren en proceso de expansión.

Otro punto a tener en cuenta por las empresas, es el requisito que se aplica en la actualidad dado lo regulado por el Decreto 115/015, y consiste en que tanto el trabajador como la empresa deben registrarse en una plataforma creada a dichos efectos por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social ( www.viatrabajo.mtss.gub.uy). Por medio de dicha plataforma se realizan las contrataciones y se ejercen los controles del Ministerio sobre la empresa, para corroborar que se cumpla con todos los requisitos que mencionamos anteriormente.

Beneficios

Asemejándose con el régimen de primera experiencia laboral ya regulado por la Ley, el Decreto en estudio establece un beneficio a las empresas que corresponde a un subsidio del 25% del salario del trabajador. Es decir que el Estado pagará parte del salario del empleado, mediante el otorgamiento de créditos fiscales a la empresa. Sin embargo debemos considerar que las retribuciones mensuales del trabajador no podrán excederse de $14.906 (valor actual).

Más allá del subsidio, que es el gran incentivo que se les da a las empresas para que contraten bajo esta modalidad, la sociedad en su conjunto recibe un gran beneficio que es lograr la formalidad laboral de muchos jóvenes, en sectores que actualmente no contaban con ella. Asimismo se otorga la posibilidad a quienes se encuentran realizando sus primeras experiencias en ámbitos laborales, que aportarán a su experiencia y formación profesional.

Otro de los beneficios que se busca, es conciliar el trabajo de los jóvenes con su formación académica. Desde el Poder

Ejecutivo expresan que dado que los trabajos se realizarían en temporada estival, los mismos no afectarían los estudios de los trabajadores, pudiendo aportarle experiencia laboral así como réditos económicos que los ayuden a solventar sus gastos.

A modo de conclusión podemos señalar que este tipo de soluciones, que se introducen por parte del gobierno, a partir de solicitudes o inquietudes de ciertos sectores de la población, redundan en la mayoría de los casos en beneficios para la sociedad en su conjunto. Asimismo, sería conveniente tomar ejemplos y experiencias como ésta, para poder extender y aplicar en diversos ámbitos, evitando los trámites y excesivas formalidades, la burocracia y facilitando la vida de las personas. En última instancia debemos tener en cuenta que las reglamentaciones deben funcionar para impartir orden en la sociedad y que dicho extremo genere beneficios para todos. Si tenemos esa idea como meta, se podrán lograr cambios, que de a poco, pero a paso firme, nos harán crecer como sociedad.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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