Uruguay: Residencia Permanente Aquellos Familiares De Uruguayos Y/O Nacionales Del Mercosur Y Estados Asociados

Last Updated: 27 October 2016
Article by Maria Cecilia Villa

¿Cómo se puede obtener la Residencia Permanente?

Con fecha 4 de setiembre de 2014 se publicó la Ley Nº 19.254 (en adelante, la "Ley"), la cual introdujo modificaciones al régimen de obtención de Residencias, teniendo por objetivo facilitar la obtención de las misma en nuestro país a los cónyuges, concubinos, padres, hermanos y/o nietos de uruguayos y a aquellas personas nacidas en el Mercosur y Estados Asociados.

La Ley Nº 19.254 regula la obtención de la Residencia Permanente a familiares de uruguayos y a nacionales del Mercosur y Estados Asociados, con un trámite mucho más sencillo y ágil que el que estaba previsto, el cual de todas formas sigue vigente para todos aquellos sujetos que no son familiares de uruguayos ni nacionales del Mercosur o países asociados.

¿Dónde se realiza el trámite?

El trámite se puede realizar tanto en nuestro país como en el exterior. Si el interesado desea realizarlo en Uruguay el trámite se llevara adelante en el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores ("MRREE"), y en el exterior se realizará en cualquier Oficina Consular de carrera de la República.

Para solicitar la residencia permanente es imprescindible agendar día y hora, lo que se puede hacer telefónicamente o a través del formulario disponible en la página web (www.mrree.gub.uy), bastando proporcionar el nombre completo del interesado y su número de documento de identidad o pasaporte.

Aquellos que se encuentran en el exterior, deberán coordinar día y hora en la Oficina Consular del Uruguay más cercana a su lugar de residencia.

Por otra parte, los sujetos que ya se encuentran residiendo en el país y desean ampararse a la nueva normativa deberán presentar directamente su solicitud en el MRREE.

¿Qué documentación es necesaria para solicitar la residencia permanente?

En lo que refiere a la documentación necesaria a los efectos de solicitar la residencia permanente, la documentación dependerá de si el interesado es un familiar de un uruguayo o si el interesado es un nacional del Mercosur o uno de sus Estados Asociados.

Los familiares extranjeros de uruguayos deberán presentar un documento probatorio de su identidad así como los testimonios de partidas de Estado Civil que acrediten el vínculo existente con el uruguayo.

Por su parte, aquellas personas nacidas en el Mercosur o países Asociados, deberán presentar documento probatorio de identidad, testimonio de partida de nacimiento del país de origen y antecedentes penales de el o los países en los que éste residió en los últimos 5 años.

La documentación exigida en la Ley es sensiblemente menor a la requerida para aquellos sujetos que deben tramitar su residencia ante la Dirección Nacional de Migración (en adelante "DNM"), lo cual fue un gran cambio que favoreció la gestión del trámite agilizando el mismo. Dentro de los cambios más significativos en lo que a documentación refiere, destacamos que quienes se amparen en este régimen, ya no deberán presentar prueba que acredite sus medios de vida, así como tampoco será necesario presentar los antecedentes penales del país en el cual este nació ni carné de salud. No obstante debe tenerse presente que para iniciar la residencia el interesado debe contar con toda la documentación pertinente, no pudiendo iniciar su residencia si faltara alguno de los documentos detallados anteriormente.

Sin perjuicio de la documentación a presentar ante el MRREE, el interesado deberá tener presente que siempre será necesario a los efectos de la obtención de la cédula de identidad uruguaya la presentación de testimonio de partida de nacimiento del interesado, la cual oportunamente será presentada ante la Dirección Nacional del Registro de Estado Civil a los efectos de su inscripción.

Es importante resaltar que tanto para el trámite de residencia como para la obtención de la cédula de identidad, sí se mantiene vigente el requisito de que toda documentación extranjera deba presentarse debidamente legalizada o apostillada a los efectos de acreditar su autenticidad. En caso de que dicha documentación fuera expedida en idioma distinto al castellano deberá ser traducida por traductor público uruguayo.

¿Cuál es el costo del trámite?

En lo que refiere al costo de trámite para obtener una residencia permanente en nuestro país este nuevo régimen es gratuito. No obstante debe tenerse presente que existen trámites relacionados que sí tienen costo, como por ejemplo la traducción y legalización de documentos, inscripción de partidas en el Registro, obtención de cédula de identidad uruguaya, etc.

¿En qué plazo se otorga la residencia permanente?

Respecto al plazo de espera para la obtención de la residencia legal permanente, según lo establecido en la Ley, una vez iniciado el trámite, el MRREE cuenta con 30 días hábiles para expedirse sobre el otorgamiento de la residencia solicitada. Esto implicó un cambio sustancial en lo que refiere al tiempo de espera, en tanto previo a la introducción de este nuevo régimen, las residencias permanentes eran otorgadas en un plazo no menor a dos años.

Consideraciones Finales

Una vez iniciado el trámite de Residencia Permanente, en caso de que el interesado quiera salir del país este deberá contar con permisos de reingreso, los cuales se adquieren ante la DNM mediante el pago de un canon determinado.

En relación a la obtención de una Cédula de Identidad Uruguaya, el interesado recién podrá obtenerla, una vez aprobado el trámite, es decir, una vez otorgada la residencia permanente.

Antes de la entrada en vigencia de este nuevo régimen, la DNM se encontraba desbordada por el inmenso número de solicitudes y trámites migratorios iniciados. Las modificaciones introducidas implicaron la derivación de las solicitudes pertinente al ámbito del MRREE, hallándose una solución al desborde referido. Sin perjuicio cabe mencionar que al día de la fecha, la solicitud de día y hora para iniciar una residencia permanente en nuestro país, ya sea ante la DNM o ante el MRREE, cuenta con una demora de al menos dos meses, lo cual sería deseable sea remediado a la brevedad para cumplir con el objetivo final de la Ley.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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