Uruguay: Nueva Regulación Del Transporte De Cargas

Last Updated: 8 August 2016
Article by Karen Elorza Gutierrez

La actual administración ha buscado dejar expresamente establecida la responsabilidad solidaria de los dadores y tomadores de carga respecto del transportista. De esta forma se ha buscado intensificar los controles al "obligarlos" a un mayor compromiso con el cumplimiento de las normas y en virtud de ello se ha reglamentado y regulado esta actividad.

Responsabilidad solidaria de dadores y tomadores de carga:

En el mes de diciembre del pasado año a través del Art. 385 de la ley 19.355 se dispuso expresamente que "El transportista de carga es responsable de las infracciones al régimen de transporte de cargas en el territorio nacional. El dador o tomador de dichas cargas será solidariamente responsable de la sanción, siempre que la infracción tenga vinculación por el hecho propio o por omisión de los controles que le correspondan, o por falencia o carencia de la documentación obligatoria que sobre la carga establezca la ley o su reglamentación".

Este artículo tuvo como objetivo reforzar la responsabilidad que ya estaba regulada en el Art. 270 de la ley 17.296 para los cargadores, respondiendo a un reclamo del sector de que se compartiera la misma y en consecuencia se regulara la responsabilidad solidaria del dador o tomador de la carga junto con el transportista.

En este sentido y en aplicación de dicha norma, dador, tomador y transportista son responsables en forma conjunta de los incumplimientos en que incurra el transportista al régimen y normativa aplicable a las cargas en territorio nacional. No obstante esta responsabilidad no sería absoluta ya que aplicará en caso de que se pruebe que dicha infracción tiene su causa en un hecho propio del dador o del tomador, una omisión en los controles que le corresponden o bien falta o error en la documentación que sea de carácter obligatoria.

En particular sobre este punto, el Art. 1 del reciente Decreto 183/2016 (junio 2016) define concretamente las figuras del Transportista, Dador y Tomador de Carga, las cuales citamos a continuación:

Transportista de carga: "es toda persona física o jurídica que transporta cargas, sean propias o de terceros, por cualquier medio de transporte, por el territorio nacional y el transporte internacional".

Dador de carga "es toda persona física o jurídica que contrata con un transportista para transporte de cargas, pudiendo ser remitente o destinatario de las mismas".

Tomador de carga "es toda persona física o jurídica que contrata con un transportista efectivo para que transporte a carga de un dador con quien se obligó a transportarla"

Como se desprende de lo anterior, la participación y responsabilidad se enmarca en la relación contractual con el transportista, en base a la cual habría elementos legales que permitan al dador o tomador realizar los controles y tomar los reparos correspondientes para evitar incumplimientos por parte del transportista.

Por su parte y además de la referida responsabilidad el Art. 2 del Decreto 183/2016 dispone expresamente la documentación que obligatoriamente debe tener el transportista a la luz de lo dispuesto por el art 385:

a) Factura de venta o remito

b) Guía Electrónica de Transportes: Este documento es el dispuesto por el art. 271 de la ley 17.296 el cual debe cumplir con los requerimientos dispuestos por el decreto 366/013. Todas las partes que participen del transporte de una carga deben figurar en la Guía Electrónica. Su falta de cumplimiento podrá implicar la aplicación de sanciones (Decreto 366/013) por parte de la Dirección Nacional de Transporte, al transportista y/o al dador o tomador de carga, en forma individual o en conjunto o

Por su parte y reflejando la actual regulación, el decreto dispone expresamente que cuando se trata de mercancías peligrosas además de los documentos antes referidos, se considera como obligatoria la documentación de transporte establecida por el art. 33 del Reglamento Nacional de Mercancías Peligrosas por Carretera (Decreto 560/003).

Creación del registro nacional de cargadores, tomadores y dadores de carga

Otro punto de importancia que dispuso la ley 19.355 a través del Art. 394 consiste en la creación del Registro referido el cual depende de la Dirección Nacional de Transporte del MTOP.

Su regulación se dio por el Decreto 184/2016 el cual identifica los requisitos que deben cumplir cargadores, tomadores y dadores para su inscripción:

Para las personas físicas los requisitos son:

  1. Nombre completo
  2. Cédula de identidad
  3. Domicilio real y constituido en el país
  4. Correo electrónico para recibir información y notificación

Para las personas jurídicas los requisitos son:

  1. Certificado notarial que acredite la identificación de la empresa, su domicilio real, fiscal y constituido, identificación del titular o titulares y representantes estatutarios o legales y número de inscripción en la DGI y BPS y giro principal registrado.
  2. Correo electrónico para recibir información y notificación

Dicho registro se encuentra en proceso de instrumentación, por lo que próximamente se pondrá en marcha el mismo.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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