Uruguay: Ajustes Por Consejo De Salarios En El Servicio Doméstico

Last Updated: 27 May 2016
Article by Jesus Ferreira Pozzi

En la presente entrega nos proponemos a analizar las modificaciones introducidas por el último Consejo de Salarios aprobado con fecha 19 de abril del corriente para el sector de servicio domestico, dado que no solo se dedicó a ajustar los salarios sino también a establecer algunas reglas en las condiciones de trabajo.

I. INTRODUCCION. ÁMBITO TEMPORAL Y MATERIAL DE APLICACION

Con fecha 19 de abril 2016 fue aprobado, y posteriormente publicado en la página del Ministerio de Trabajo, el Acuerdo al que arribaron las delegaciones de los sectores trabajador, empleador y Poder Ejecutivo.

El presente acuerdo abarcará el período comprendido entre el 1º de enero 2016 y el 31 de diciembre de 2018, efectuándose ajustes salariales semestrales el 1º de enero 2016, 1º de julio 2016, 1º de enero 2017, 1º de julio 2017, 1º de enero 2018 y 1º de julio 2018. Los porcentajes de dichos ajustes se encuentran desarrollados en el propio Acuerdo, sin perjuicio de tener presente que el primer ajuste fijado para los salarios mínimos con vigencia al 30 de junio es del %10,56, por lo que el salario mínimo nominal fijado para el sector es de $ 13.206,78, equivalente a $ 69,48 la hora. Detallaremos los porcentajes establecidos para todos los ajustes más adelante.

Aunque resulte obvio, en dicho documento se aclara que lo regulado allí es de carácter nacional abarcando a "todos los trabajadores que se desempeñen en el Sector Servicio Doméstico, definido en la Ley Nº 18065 y en su Decreto reglamentario (Decreto Nº 224/007)".

II. RETROACTIVIDAD ENERO 2016

Se establece claramente que la retroactividad generada por el aumento vigente al 1º de enero 2016 "debe abonarse en una sola vez conjuntamente con el primer salario que se pague a partir de la entrada en vigencia del presente, salvo los acuerdos particulares que puedan realizarse entre cada empleador y trabajador respecto a la forma de pago", el cual por lógica, debe ser más favorable para el trabajador.

III. AJUSTES SALARIALES PARA LOS DEMAS PERIODOS

Respecto a los demás períodos, los porcentajes son los siguientes (siempre respecto a los salarios mínimos):

  1. Ajuste 1º de julio 2016 – 6,07%
  2. Ajuste 1º de enero 2017 – 5,57%
  3. Ajuste 1º de julio 2017 – 5,57%
  4. Ajuste 1º de enero 2018 – 5,31%
  5. Ajuste 1º de julio 2018 – 5,31%

IV. NUEVO BENEFICIO: SALARIO VACACIONAL COMPLEMENTARIO

Una de las innovaciones del Acuerdo que estamos analizando es que estableció un salario vacacional complementario, el cual ascenderá a un 15% del salario vacacional ordinario, aplicable a las licencias generadas a partir del año 2016, que se gocen a partir del 2017. Como es evidente, este nuevo salario vacacional (como el actualmente vigente) no estará gravado por aportes a la seguridad social.

V. CONSIDERACIONES ESPECIALES PARA TRABAJADORAS QUE ESTEN EN PERIODO DE LACTANCIA

Se declara el derecho a toda trabajadora doméstica que esté amamantando a gozar de un descanso complementario para alimentar a su niño, el cual deberá ser considerado como trabajo efectivo y por lo tanto pago. A propósito de esto, se cita lo establecido en el Art. 3 del Decreto de 1/6/1954 a los efectos de hacer aplicable lo allí dispuesto: "Si la empleada u obrera lacta a su hijo, está autorizada a interrumpir su trabajo para ese fin, durante dos períodos de media hora dentro de su jornada diaria y que serán contados como trabajo efectivo. El Consejo del Niño por medio de uno de los médicos de su dependencia, fijará la duración del período de amamantamiento".

En la práctica, lo más corriente es que el empleador acuerde con la trabajadora para que ingrese o se retire de su trabajo una hora antes.

VI. ¿EN QUE CONSISTE LA CREACION DE UN FONDO SOCIAL?

La nueva regulación también establece la creación de un fondo que está destinado a fomentar el desarrollo de las organizaciones profesionales del sector (Sindicato Trabajadores Domésticos -SUTD- y Liga de Ama de Casa -LACCU-). El Fondo se financiará con un aporte mensual de empleadores y trabajadores,del 0,03% del salario mensual del trabajador por cada parte. Será el Banco de Previsión Social el encargado de recaudar dichos aportes, a través de la factura mensual que emite el organismo, a partir del 1º de julio próximo (aplicado a los haberes de junio).

El aporte no es obligatorio. En caso de no desear participar, empleador y trabajador deberán notificar al BPS de esta circunstancia (y el trabajador también deberá comunicar al empleador esta opción). Si no hay notificación, el BPS presumirá que las partes optaron por participar y liquidará el aporte en la factura correspondiente al mes de cargo junio de 2016. Dichas comunicaciones deberán realizarse en los plazos que establezca la reglamentación, la cual deberá ser elaborada y presentada por los sectores trabajador y empleador a los 45 días de la vigencia de este Acuerdo.

Relacionado con esto último, en un plazo de 90 días contados a partir de la vigencia del presente Acuerdo, el SUTD y la LACCU deberán elaborar un Proyecto de Ley con el propósito de crear un Fondo con el mismo objetivo y con los mismos términos del presente.

VII. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES

Como se puede apreciar el Acuerdo referido sin perjuicio de que demoro notoriamente en sus negociaciones, no solo se encargó de establecer los porcentajes de ajustes salariales para el sector doméstico, sino que incorporó tres innovaciones de importancia: la creación de un salario vacacional complementario (que se deberá gozar concomitantemente con el salario vacacional ya dispuesto normativamente), una expresa regulación en materia de lactancia (basándose en un Decreto del año 1954) y en la creación de un Fondo Social que tiene como principal objetivo fomentar el desarrollo de las organizaciones profesionales del sector.

Como tarea pendiente quedará la elaboración de la reglamentación y Proyector de Ley respecto al funcionamiento del Fondo Social mencionado.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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