Isle of Man: Uses of Offshore Companies

Last Updated: 4 January 2000

"No man in the country is under the smallest obligation, moral or other, so to arrange his legal relations to his business or property as to enable the Inland Revenue to put the largest possible shovel in his stores. The Inland Revenue is not slow - and quite rightly - to take every advantage which is open to it under the Taxing Statutes for the purposes of depleting the taxpayer's pocket. And the taxpayer is in like manner entitled to be astute to prevent, so far as he honestly can, the depletion of his means by the Inland Revenue."

Law Lord Clyde, (Ayrshire Pullman Motor Services v Inland Revenue Comrs [1929] 14 Tax Cas 754, at 763,764).

"There is nothing sinister in so arranging one's affairs as to keep taxes as low as possible. Everybody does so, rich or poor; all do right. Nobody owes any public duty to pay more than the law demands; taxes are enforced exactions not voluntary contributions!"

US Judge Learned Hand

OCRA World Wide acts for a wide range of clients from large multinational companies to family businesses to private individuals. Our clients are engaged in their own country or internationally in many areas of activity such as:

The Arts, Agriculture, Banking, Brokerage, Chemicals, Constructions, Distribution, Electronics, Exporting, Energy, Engineering, Fund Management, Film Production, Hotels, Importing, Insurance, Investment Advice, Manufacturing, Natural Resources, Oil and Gas, The Professions, Property, Project Financing, Retailing, Shipping, Show Business, Textiles, Trading and Unit Trusts.

Some examples of the areas in which OCRA World Wide helps its clients follow. Apply the principles to yourself or your company and you will appreciate how we can help you.

INTERNATIONAL TRADING AND PURCHASING COMPANIES

One of the most popular uses of a company incorporated in a low tax area is for international trading. Significant tax saving opportunities can arise by interposing an offshore company in to an international trading transaction. If an offshore company were to obtain products from one country, and then sell them on to another country the profits arising out of the transaction may be accumulated in the offshore company, free from taxation in the offshore centre.

For European Union transactions, the Isle of Man and Madeira have become very popular locations for conducting cross border trading activities. Both the Isle of Man and Madeira are able to obtain VAT registration, which is imperative for transactions within the European Union. As an example, if an Isle of Man company wished to source products from France for sale to Germany, the Isle of Man company would inform the French company of its VAT number so that it could zero rate its sales invoice. The French company would not have to charge VAT to the Isle of Man company. The Isle of Man company would then obtain the German company's VAT number so that it could zero rate its sales invoice.

This type of transaction would not normally be possible through other jurisdictions without the requirement of either establishing a branch office or appointing a tax agent within the European Union which can be a complicated exercise and may give rise to taxation implications.

Factoring trading debts of a company resident in a high tax jurisdiction through a company established in low tax jurisdiction may assist in transferring funds to the low tax jurisdiction.

Another common use of an offshore entity is for bulk purchasing. Such a structure is typically established by a group of associated or un-associated companies to benefit from economies of scale and reduced administrative costs. Moreover, such a structure may be more tax efficient than an onshore arrangement.

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT

Both corporations and individuals regularly make use of offshore companies as vehicles to hold investment portfolios. Such portfolios may consist of stock, bonds, cash and a broad range of other investment products. Cash assets held by offshore companies may earn deposit interest gross or be placed in collective cash funds.

Many of our clients instruct us to arrange for offshore life insurance and pension contracts to be established by their offshore companies.

High net worth individuals often use offshore companies as personal holding companies to hold investments made in a number of different markets and countries. Personal holding companies can provide privacy and may save the professional and other fees associated with setting up and maintaining entities in a number of different structures. In this connection, offshore companies are regularly used for inheritance planning and to reduce the costs and time delays associated with probate.

The selection of a politically and economically stable corporate domicile may reduce risks that both corporations and individuals may face in either their home or third party countries.

PERSONAL SERVICE COMPANIES

Many individuals engaged in the provision of professional services in the professions and in the construction, engineering, aviation, finance, computer, film and entertainment industries can achieve considerable tax saving benefits through the establishment of a personal service company, based offshore.

The offshore company can contract to supply the services of the individual outside the country in which he/she is normally resident and the fees earned can accumulate offshore, free from taxation in the offshore centre. Payments to the individual can then be structured in such a way to minimise income tax.

HOLDING COMPANIES

Offshore corporations and trusts are often used to hold investments in subsidiary and/or associated companies, publicly quoted and private companies and joint venture projects. In many cases, capital gains, arising from the disposal of particular investments, can be made without the encumbrance of taxation. In the case of dividend payments, reduced levels of withholding taxes can be achieved by the utilisation of a company incorporated in a zero or low tax jurisdiction that has double tax agreements with the contracting state. An example of this is a Mauritian Offshore Company, which can invest in to Indian companies and benefit from the double tax treaty that exists between the two countries. Moreover, there is no capital gains tax upon the disposal of the investment in India.

INTERMEDIARY HOLDING COMPANIES

Many large corporations and companies wishing to invest in to countries where a double tax agreement does not exist between the investor's country and the country where the investment is to be made will establish an intermediary company in a jurisdiction where there is a suitable treaty. The Madeira SGPS Company, for example, has been used extensively for inward investment in to European Union since corporate entities incorporated there are generally able to avail themselves of the EU Parent/Subsidiary Directive.

Cyprus has an extensive double tax treaty network with many Eastern European and CIS countries, and the use of Cypriot companies for inward investment in to these countries provides a tax efficient conduit.

EMPLOYMENT COMPANIES

Many companies utilise offshore companies for the employment of staff working on overseas assignments. This helps to reduce the costs associated with payroll and travel expense administration, and may provide a tax and social security saving benefit for the employees.

PROPERTY AND LAND OWNERSHIP

The ownership of real property and land by an offshore company can often create tax advantages, including the legal avoidance of capital gains, inheritance and property transfer taxes.

If, for example, an offshore company, beneficially owned by a UK non-resident, purchased a property in the United Kingdom for investment purposes and the property was then later sold on to a third party the capital gain arising from the transaction would not be subject to United Kingdom capital gains taxation. In addition, by structuring the financing correctly through a back-to-back loan facility, the offshore company can reduce the effective level of any withholding taxes on rental income that may apply.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, LICENSING AND FRANCHISING

Intellectual property, including computer software, technical knowledge, patents, trademarks and copyrights can be owned by or assigned to an offshore company. Upon the acquisition of the rights, the offshore company can then enter in to licence or franchise agreements with companies interested in the exploitation of such rights around the world. The income arising from such arrangements can be accumulated offshore and by the careful selection of an appropriate jurisdiction; withholding taxes on royalty payments can be reduced by the commercial application of double tax treaties. The UK, Netherlands, Madeira, Cyprus and Mauritius are good examples of jurisdictions used for holding intellectual property.

STOCK MARKET LISTINGS AND CAPITAL RAISING EXERCISES

With political and economic uncertainty in some countries, many large corporations have sought to mitigate risk by moving ownership of assets and bases of operations offshore. Luxembourg and Bermuda have been host to many companies wishing to re-domicile their operations.

Offshore companies are regularly employed to raise money through loan or bond issues. Such a structure may reduce withholding tax on interest payments as, for example, countries such as the UK raise a withholding tax on interest paid on non-quoted bonds to non-residents. Double taxation avoidance planning is vital in cases such as these.

FINANCE

Offshore finance companies can be established to fulfil an inter-group treasury management function. Interest payments from group companies may be subject to withholding taxes, but often these taxes are different to the normal rates of corporation taxes that are levied. The interest paid would be a deductible charge, for taxation purposes, and so consolidating interest payments in an offshore finance company may provide a tax saving benefit.

Many large companies establish their own offshore mixing companies to mix dividends from their subsidiaries and to take maximum advantage of tax credits.

In certain countries, foreign exchange losses are not deductible for tax purposes. If an offshore finance subsidiary was formed, then made a foreign exchange loss, and was then liquidated, the investment could be a tax-deductible item for the parent company.

Offshore companies are often utilised as part of mechanisms and structures for acquiring foreign entities; international restructuring of corporations, real estate and other investments and other corporate finance related projects.

Another application of offshore structures is leasing, and such mechanisms are particularly favoured when an offshore structure is rich in funds which, unless invested, would have to be repatriated and face high levels of corporate taxation.

PRE-EMIGRATION TAX PLANNING

OCRA World Wide respects the fact that the anti-avoidance legislation of most high tax jurisdictions is primarily aimed at long term residents of that jurisdiction or alternatively at countering action taken while a resident of that jurisdiction. This leaves an enormous amount of scope for planning when an individual is physically moving between high tax countries.

SHIPPING AND AVIATION COMPANIES

Since the early part of the 20th Century, the use of offshore companies to own merchant ships and pleasure craft has been an important function of certain offshore jurisdictions, such as Panama and Liberia.

Many other important offshore jurisdictions have modern ship and pleasure craft registration facilities that provide low cost registration fees and tax exemption on income derived from shipping and chartering activities. These jurisdictions include the Isle of Man, Madeira, Jersey, Gibraltar, Cyprus, Bahamas, Belize and Mauritius.

It should be noted that owners of pleasure vessels being operated within European Union waters for extended periods require specialised advice in relation to Value Added Tax.

OCRA World Wide has particular expertise in aircraft registration and finance and is able to assist clients wishing to register aircraft in the UK, Isle of Man, Aruba, Mauritius, Seychelles, Bermuda, Cayman Islands and elsewhere.

FREEPORTS

The Group established a Mauritian offshore company for a client who sources and exports precious woods from the African continent to the European Union. The Mauritian company rents space in the Mauritius Freeport and treats the product further. This degree of processing qualifies the wood for a Mauritian Certificate of Origin, without the necessity of setting up an onshore processing unit which would be liable to tax at the full corporate rate. The Mauritian Certificate of Origin ensures that the wood enters the European Market on a concessionary duty and benefits from the Mauritian quota.

OCRA World Wide processes all the documentation relating to the Letters of Credit and liases with the banks involved to ensure that payment for the products to the supplier is made, and payment from the customer is received.

If you are interested in our international professional corporate services please contact us.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions