Argentina: 拉丁美洲:中国企业蓬勃发展的投资机会

Last Updated: 5 February 2019
Article by Raimundo Diaz

拉丁美洲与中国的关系自中华人民共和国成立后就开始建立。两者之间的关系以贸易为主,进而发展至更广泛的服务、商品和投资交易。最近,因为投资、融资和贸易增加,拉丁美洲与中国的关系更建立起互惠互利的伙伴关系。

中国已从内向发展的国家变为积极放眼国外的世界第二大经济体。中国与拉丁美洲之间的关系转变,不仅取决于个别国家的内部政治,也跟拉丁美洲和中国与美国之间的出口有关。许多拉丁美洲国家,如智利、巴西、阿根廷和墨西哥不仅与北方寻求贸易,同时也寻求与东方交易。这促使拉丁美洲与中国的贸易在2000年至2014年之间暴增近2000%。中国流入拉丁美洲国家的外国直接投资(FDI),也从2005年的不到10亿美元,增加至目前的130多亿美元,进一步巩固了双方的贸易。

中国的投资

中国正在寻求原材料,而拉丁美洲(以及非洲)也对中国开放交易。中国采取货源入口多元化,如大豆等农产品,拉丁美洲因而从中受惠。拉丁美洲国家拥有丰富的商品和农产品,对中国来说是极具吸引力的市场。除了原料,中国的跨国公司也想要在各行各业进行海外直接投资,如酒店、房地产、交通和基建等。

目前,中国正投资不少大型的基建项目,特别是在阿根廷,其中包括收费公路、风车农场、交通和能源方面。根据一带一路倡议,中国计划投资约8兆美元在全球的基建项目。2015年1月,中国国家主席习近平在"中国-拉美和加勒比国家共同体论坛"(CELAC)承诺,中国在2015年至2019年间投资2500亿美元在拉丁美洲和加勒比区域。他也强调,该投资的优先重点是能源与资源、基础设施建设、农业、制造业、科技创新和资讯科技。另外,中国也为拉丁美洲提供大量的资金,在2007年至2014年间,共提供超过1180亿美元的贷款;其中53%流入了委内瑞拉,该国以大量的石油储备作为抵押品。

随着经济发展降温,中国如今已减少在海外的整体投资额,但其在拉丁美洲的投资却有所增加。例如,十分之九的电力、石油、基建和农业公司收购活动都在巴西进行,而十分之七则涉及中国买家。美国占中国12%的总FDI投资,拉丁美洲则只有5%;而且,中国投资在拉丁美洲的FDI分布并不平均,巴西是最大的受惠者。

中国投资者面临的挑战

当中国投资者考虑要在拉丁美洲的国家展开投资关系时,他们必须了解全球扩张所带来的挑战。根据 合规复杂度指数,世界上合规复杂度最高的十大国家中,就有三个来自拉丁美洲,分别是巴西、阿根廷和乌拉圭。巴西的公司注册程序多变,加上大量的税法,增加了该国的营商复杂度。自从阿根廷政府为简化企业治理,新推行了令人混乱的文件申报和条例后,该国就成为了美洲区域最复杂的司法管辖区。乌拉圭实施了全球条例倡议(如最终受益人)也显著提升了营商的复杂度。了解当中的复杂性,并与本地专家合作,有助您有效地应付这些挑战。

了解贸易关系

中国和美国之间的贸易战,促使中国寻求其他市场以获得原材料和投资机会,如拉丁美洲。中国正开发新市场,并巩固其在美国身后的地位,特别是那些美国已经退出的地区。美国和中国的纠纷日渐升温,有利于拉丁美洲与中国之间的关系和经济联系。

中国与拉丁美洲的双向贸易均有增长,拉丁美洲不仅向中国出口原材料,同时也从中国进口相对便宜的科技产品。在中国出口至拉丁美洲的商品中,制成品共占60%。

归功于中国额外的投资,拉丁美洲在全球和经济角度来看都变得更有地位。拉丁美洲的资本增加有助创造商机,使拉丁美洲国家变得富裕,进而在公共服务上投入更多资金。

另一方面,拉丁美洲国家对与中国建立的合伙关系感到不安,主要担心源自中国的"殖民地拥有权"。中国已决定通过"只惠及特定国家部分地区"的方式在拉丁美洲进行投资,被视为是有偏见的贸易方式。

TMF Group

TMF Group在主要的拉丁美洲国家,如 巴西 阿根廷 墨西哥 智利均设有办事处。我们能协助想要进军这区域或拓展业务的中国公司,也能协助拉丁美洲公司在中国扩展业务。每个国家的本地专家都具备专业知识,能够协助公司成立新实体,符合所有本地条例,并了解全球的国际业务。我们的专家拥有丰富的经验,在当地的负责人也能满足您在全球经商需要的会计、税务、人力资源与薪酬及其他商务要求。欢迎与我们联系,获取更多资讯。

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